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Table 1 Discriminant functiona coefficients from MANOVA analysis of surface and crown fuel variables from 2 to 32 years post-MPB epidemic initiation in lodgepole pine stands of south-central Oregon, USA. aDiscriminant functions are represented as DF-1 surface, DF-2 surface, DF-1 crown, and DF-2 crown. bLarger values indicate stronger relationships. cCoefficient used in simplified multivariate composite to test significance using ANOVA

From: Beyond red crowns: complex changes in surface and crown fuels and their interactions 32 years following mountain pine beetle epidemics in south-central Oregon, USA

Variables for DF-1 surface Standardized DF-1 surface coefficients b Variables for DF-2 surface Standardized DF-2 surface coefficients b
100-h fuel load 0.69c 10-h fuel load −1.02c
Fuel bed depth 0.56c 100-h fuel load 0.69c
1000-h fuel load 0.46c Fuel bed depth 0.56c
Herbaceous fuel load −0.24 1000-h fuel load 0.46c
Duff biomass −0.24 1-h fuel load 0.39
Litter biomass −0.20 Duff biomass −0.24
1-h fuel load −0.04 Litter biomass −0.20
10-h fuel load 0.03 Live woody biomass −0.06
Live woody biomass −0.06 Herbaceous fuel load −0.02
Composite effect size 0.28 Composite effect size 0.13
Variables for DF-1 crown Standardized DF-1 crown coefficients b Variables for DF-2 crown Standardized DF-2 crown coefficients b
Dead basal area −1.28c Canopy bulk density 1.50c
Overstory canopy closure 0.29c Live basal area −1.21c
Live basal area 0.28c Canopy height 0.65c
Canopy base height 0.16 Overstory canopy closure 0.38
Canopy height 0.09 Canopy base height −0.19
Canopy bulk density 0.01 Dead basal area 0.07
Composite effect size 0.46 Composite effect size 0.19