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Table 1 Initial tree mortality (2000 to 2002) and secondary mortality (2002 to 2011 and 2002 to 2016) by fire severities and species following the 2001 Leroux Fire, Arizona, USA. Tree mortality (% tree density) is the relative difference in tree density. Fire severity differences (within year) by total and species are indicated by superscripted letters. Initial and delayed mortality differences by total and species are indicated by bolded text. All alpha levels were adjusted using a Bonferonni correction (either P ≤ 0.0125 or P ≤ 0.025). 1PIFL = Pinus flexilis, PIPO = Pinus ponderosa, POTR = Populus tremuloides, and PSME = Pseudotsuga menziesii

From: Forest structure and regeneration responses 15 years after wildfire in a ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer ecotone, Arizona, USA

   Tree mortality (% tree density) by fire severity class
Years Species1 Unburned Low Moderate High
2000 to 2002 Total 13.1 a 38.7b 68.8 c 41.1b
PIFL 13.1 a 22.8 a 53.5b 83.3c
PIPO 16.2 a 20.2a 73.1 b 38.9c
POTR 4.3 a 56.3b 68.7b  
PSME 10.8 a 50.0b 66.6 bc 100.0c
2002 to 2011 Total 23.2a 34.9b 35.2b 34.7b
PIFL 0.0a 38.2b 23.5b 100.0c
PIPO 31.6a 17.2b 42.5a 34.0a
POTR 42.2 55.2 41.7  
PSME 0.0a 50.0b 25.0b  
2002 to 2016 Total 26.6 a 41.1b 41.7 b 38.6b
PIFL 0.0 a 44.2 b 39.3b 100.0c
PIPO 34.2 ab 22.9a 46.5 b 38.0b
POTR 55.5 62.1 50.1  
PSME 0.0 a 56.2b 27.5 b