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Table 3 Fuel and crown fire potential change by treatment between 2002 (immediately following treatment) and 2016 (following the 2005 to 2012 regional mountain pine beetle outbreak) at the Fire and Fire Surrogate Study. Estimates were derived and tested against zero using linear mixed effects models. aFine woody debris (surface wood < 7.62 cm diameter); bCoarse woody debris (sound surface wood ≥7.62 cm diameter); cLitter and duff (litter and duff layers); dCanopy fuels (foliage and materials < 7.62 cm diameter); eCanopy base height (lowest height where canopy bulk density exceeds 0.011 kg m−3); fCanopy bulk density (maximum canopy fuel mass per volume given 4.5 m running mean); gProbability of torching (probability of surface fire ascending into crowns given Monte Carlo simulation); hCrowning index (6.1 m windspeed required to cause active crown fire)

From: Fuel dynamics after a bark beetle outbreak impacts experimental fuel treatments

Response Treatment Estimate Standard error P-value
FWDa (Mg ha−1) Control 5.17 1.30 0.0073
Burn-only 7.32 1.35 0.0016
Thin-only −11.39 3.04 0.0095
Thin+Burn −1.02 1.39 0.4904
CWDb (Mg ha−1) Control 16.96 7.20 0.0565
Burn-only 12.02 2.99 0.0070
Thin-only −4.34 1.29 0.0152
Thin+Burn −0.71 1.29 0.6007
LDc (Mg ha−1) Control −8.59 4.14 0.0832
Burn-only 13.14 2.28 0.0012
Thin-only −0.25 2.66 0.9288
Thin+Burn 9.82 2.32 0.0055
CFd (Mg ha−1) Control −7.61 3.09 0.0488
Burn-only −7.06 2.02 0.0128
Thin-only 9.47 0.76 <0.0001
Thin+Burn 3.58 1.11 0.0177
CBHe (m) Control −0.34 0.53 0.5479
Burn-only 0.53 0.52 0.3498
Thin-only −2.54 0.52 0.0028
Thin+Burn −0.31 0.55 0.5941
CBDf (kg m−3) Control −0.006 0.007 0.4431
Burn-only −0.017 0.007 0.0404
Thin-only 0.015 0.004 0.0080
Thin+Burn 0.005 0.004 0.2406
PTg (%) Control 20.46 7.61 0.0361
Burn-only 32.97 7.50 0.0046
Thin-only 4.22 7.50 0.5938
Thin+Burn 14.02 7.83 0.1237
CIh (km h−1) Control 5.84 8.33 0.5096
Burn-only 11.41 8.19 0.2130
Thin-only −25.95 8.19 0.0193
Thin+Burn 0.77 8.63 0.9318