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Table 4 Literature that discussed the impact of interacting disturbances on tree regeneration. Studies, forest type, and described interacting disturbances identified. Fire-fire indicates that a study examined two wildfires that reburned the same area; bark beetle-fire describes studies that examined bark beetle outbreaks that preceded a wildfire. The influence of disturbances column explains the differences observed between areas that only experienced a wildfire and those that experienced either a previous bark beetle outbreak or a previous wildfire

From: Tree regeneration following wildfires in the western US: a review

Study Forest type Disturbances Influence of disturbances
Coop et al. 2016 Ponderosa-mixed conifer Fire-fire Higher reburn severity promoted transition to non-forest cover types
Donato et al. 2009 Mixed conifer Fire-fire No reduction in regeneration
Harvey et al. 2014a Lodgepole Bark beetle-fire No reduction in regeneration
Harvey et al. 2014b Lodgepole Bark beetle-fire No reduction in regeneration
Harvey et al. 2013 Douglas-fir Bark beetle-fire Low tree regeneration in bark beetle and high severity fire areas
Larson et al. 2013 Dry mixed conifer Fire-fire Repeated fires killed regeneration from the first fire but restored a more historical species composition
Lydersen and North 2012 Ponderosa-mixed conifer Fire-fire Shrub cover increased and decreased regeneration
Stevens-Rumann et al. 2015 Dry mixed conifer Bark beetle-fire No reduction in regeneration due to both disturbances
Stevens-Rumann and Morgan 2016 Dry and moist mixed conifer Fire-fire Tree regeneration reductions in repeated high-severity fires