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Table 4 Fire behavior model runs versus observed results at the 1997 Magitchlie Creek Experimental Fire study area, Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA. Two-meter winds were adjusted to 11.8 km h−1 at 10 m above ground using the inverse of the 0.7 WAF. N/A refers to data that is not produced by the fire behavior modeling system tested

From: Observed versus predicted fire behavior in an Alaskan black spruce forest ecosystem: an experimental fire case study

  Observed BehavePlus6
Rate of spread (m min–1) 8.8 1.1 6.6 10.6 10.6 13.6
Head fire intensity (kW m–1) 9489 196 1740 11 953 10 530 N/A
Flame length (m) 10 to 30 0.9 4.5 N/A N/A N/A
Surface fuel consumption (kg m–2) 2.6 N/A N/A 3.2 10.4 N/A
Crown fuel consumption (kg m–2) 0.9 N/A N/A 0.7 0.7 N/A
Total fuel consumption (kg m–2) 3.5 N/A N/A 3.9 11.1 N/A
Crown fraction burned (%) 100 0 28 89 N/A N/A
Fire type Active crown Surface Torching Active crown Active crown Active crown
  1. aCFIS does predict the probability of crown fire initiation, which was 100% for this study