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Table 2 Permutation ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison test results for treatment–severity interactions between surface covers measured after the 2007 Egley Fire Complex, eastern Oregon, USA, in 2008 and 2016. Treat = treatment (two factors: treated or untreated), Sev = severity (two factors: low or high), T = treated, U = untreated, F = F-statistic, boldface denotes significance at the 95% confidence level, and dashes (-) indicate no significant difference. Degrees of freedom for all permutation ANOVA tests were 1 for each predictor variable. Letters denote significant Tukey multiple comparisons (Tukey’s honestly statistical difference [HSD]) between treatment and severity groups

From: Short- and long-term effects of ponderosa pine fuel treatments intersected by the Egley Fire Complex, Oregon, USA

 Permutation ANOVATukey multiple comparisons
Predictor variables20082016Groups20082016
FPFPMean ± SETukey HSDMean ± SETukey HSD
Shrub cover (%)Treat1.60.2158.00.006T-low0.9 (0.4)5.8 (1.6)b
Sev3.30.07410.90.002T-high0.0 (0.0)19.1 (8.6)a
Treat:Sev0.60.4451.60.216U-low2.6 (1.8)1.2 (0.5)b
     U-high0.4 (0.2)7.2 (2.1)ab
Graminoid cover (%)Treat0.50.5000.20.634T-low5.7 (1.3)13.2 (1.2)b
Sev3.10.0854.00.049T-high0.2 (0.2)-12.2 (1.5)b
Treat:Sev1.20.2826.40.014U-low4.9 (1.8)9.1 (1.3)b
     U-high3.6 (1.3)18.1 (1.6)a
Forb cover (%)Treat0.20.6241.50.223T-low8.7 (1.6)11.0 (1.1)ab
Sev2.00.1614.30.043T-high2.2 (0.9)12.4 (2.4)ab
Treat:Sev1.00.3131.50.230U-low7.3 (3.4)6.8 (1.2)a
     U-high6.2 (1.7)12.4 (1.2)b
Invasive species cover (%)Treat0.40.510.20.672T-low0.0 (0.0)1.2 (0.4)a
Sev0.40.519.60.003T-high0.0 (0.0)4.7 (2.5)ab
Treat:Sev0.40.510.00.996U-low0.0 (0.0)0.7 (0.5)ab
     U-high0.3 (0.3)4.2 (1.1)b
Moss–lichen–fungi cover (%)Treat0.00.8742.30.135T-low2.5 (1.7)2.2 (0.3)-
Sev1.00.3154.00.049T-high0.2 (0.2)1.7 (0.4)-
Treat:Sev0.00.8921.10.297U-low2.5 (1.8)3.7 (1.0)-
     U-high0.8 (0.4)1.9 (0.3)-