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Table 1 Description of the three sample sites where data was collected during the 2017 and 2018 field seasons in southwest Montana, USA, to examine whitebark pine encroachment into sagebrush grasslands. Mature trees are those trees above 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) while saplings are below 10 cm DBH and seedlings are below 1.37 m tall. BA is basal area of all tree species and DD is decimal degrees. All tree density values are trees per hectare. No regeneration of whitebark pine or any other conifer species occurred in the upslope subalpine meadows. No other species were found in the non-forest areas, except for five Douglas-fir trees at the Harkness sagebrush site

From: Whitebark pine encroachment into lower-elevation sagebrush grasslands in southwest Montana, USA

 Sample sites
HarknessMorrisonJeff Davis
Latitude (DD)44.8853644.6206944.87296
Longitude (DD)−113.098−113.044−113.149
Elevation (m)250326592658
Aspect (azimuths)14284290
Slope (%)131413
Rainfall (cm)646565
Live mature BA (m2 ha−1)17.625.614.3
Dead mature BA (m2 ha−1)2.30.620.6
Area belt transect (m2)14 86528 8002555
Whitebark pine tree density (trees ha−1) in mature seed-source stand
 Mature trees440389716
 Saplings2632891005
 Seedlings211903927
Other conifer tree density (trees ha−1) in mature seed-source stand
 Mature trees41225
 Saplings7866
 Seedlings12402245
Whitebark pine tree density (trees ha−1) in sagebrush grasslands
 Mature trees1121031
 Saplings14849516
 Seedlings4111246