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Table 2 Overall (2008 to 2016) and end-result (2016) ANCOVA and ANOVA model results for groundcover variables observed within oak woodland and savanna restoration experiments at CWMA (Catoosa Wildlife Management Area, Cumberland County, Tennessee, USA), GRGL (Green River Game Lands, Polk County, North Carolina, USA), and LBL (Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, Stewart County, Tennessee, USA). Richness and diversity (Shannon-Wiener Index) refer to the herbaceous community. Boldface values indicates significant (α = 0.05) and interpretable effects. Model df calculated using Kenward-Roger adjustment

From: Litter to glitter: promoting herbaceous groundcover and diversity in mid-southern USA oak forests using canopy disturbance and fire

Site Groundcover variable Overall model (2008 to 2016) End result (2016)
Treatment Year Treatment × Year Treatment
F P F P F P F P
CWMA Graminoid 5.1 0.051 59.2 <0.001 9.7 <0.001 5.9 0.040
Forb 6.7 0.029 62.0 <0.001 7.7 <0.001 9.6 0.015
Richness 6.3 0.034 70.1 <0.001 9.5 <0.001 8.8 0.017
Diversity 7.3 0.025 81.0 <0.001 8.3 <0.001 6.7 0.031
Woody 26.6 0.001 144.8 <0.001 10.5 <0.001 31.9 0.001
Litter 84.6 <0.001 109.6 <0.001 6.7 <0.001 119.8 <0.001
Debris 1.5 0.334 22.5 <0.001 3.7 <0.001 5.9 0.039
Bare 27.6 <0.001 37.1 <0.001 6.8 <0.001 0.4 0.831
GRGL Graminoid 44.0 <0.001 93.8 <0.001 16.4 <0.001 11.4 <0.001
Forb 15.3 <0.001 34.9 <0.001 5.8 <0.001 4.6 0.002
Richness 34.3 <0.001 64.8 <0.001 8.0 <0.001 18.5 <0.001
Diversity 48.7 <0.001 71.1 <0.001 9.6 <0.001 23.3 <0.001
Woody 21.4 <0.001 9.0 <0.001 8.6 <0.001 19.6 <0.001
Litter 29.7 <0.001 36.7 <0.001 10.3 <0.001 43.6 <0.001
Debris 7.1 <0.001 12.4 <0.001 3.7 <0.001 1.4 0.243
Bare 16.9 <0.001 53.4 <0.001 9.7 <0.001 10.9 <0.001
LBL Graminoid 7.8 0.009 13.3 <0.001 6.5 <0.001 5.0 0.030
Forb 1.3 0.343 24.3 <0.001 3.2 <0.001 2.3 0.160
Richness 3.3 0.079 30.2 <0.001 6.0 <0.001 2.7 0.118
Diversity 3.8 0.059 30.6 <0.001 5.6 <0.001 4.3 0.044
Woody 6.9 0.012 66.7 <0.001 6.4 <0.001 4.4 0.041
Litter 25.7 <0.001 55.8 <0.001 8.1 <0.001 14.5 0.001
Debris 7.4 0.012 12.9 <0.001 1.9 0.017 4.6 0.037
Bare 3.6 0.065 34.8 <0.001 3.3 <0.001 0.9 0.474