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Table 3 Mean pre- and post-treatment oak seedling densities (±1 standard deviation) from 2009 to 2018 among oak restoration sites 1, 2, and 3 on the southern Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. The P-values were estimated using a repeated measures analysis with a first-order ante-dependence covariance structure (with 95% confidence levels). At Site 1, oak seedling densities after the first fire were significantly different from the other time periods (P ≤ 0.05). All other comparisons were not significantly different

From: The effects of oak (Quercus) restoration on forest trajectory and small mammal use in the southern Cumberland Plateau, USA

  Mean density (oak seedlings ha−1)  
  Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 P-value
Pre treatment 16 563 ± 17 151 3 952 ± 6 199 10 232 ± 15 035 0.16
After first fire 11 332 ± 17 423 8 398 ± 12 049 8 292 ± 7 416 0.27
After second fire 26 174 ± 34 240 14 200 ± 13 513 8 571 ± 11 168 0.22
After third fire 45 352 ± 61 774 13 900 ± 13 739 7 642 ± 9 017 0.60
2 yr after last fire 27 823 ± 30 412 16 700 ± 13 441 9 214 ± 11 583 0.44