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Table 1 Variables affecting hazelnut basketry stem production one growing season post-burn (2015 to 2019) in Karuk and Yurok territory, northwestern California, USA. Results of a Wald Type III Chi Square test (χ2) on the significance of ungulate shrub browse proportion, pre-burn total stems, burn season (winter, spring, summer, and fall), and aspect class (east, southeast, south, southwest, and west) on basketry stem production generated from a negative-binomial generalized linear mixed model. Aspect classes included east (67.5° to 112.5°); southeast (112.5° to 157.5°); south (157.5° to 202.5°); southwest (202.5° to 247.5°); and west (247.5° to 292.5°). Only shrubs located in southern aspects (n = 124, estimated marginal = 13.62, SE = 0.99) produced significantly different stems compared with those found in eastern aspects (n = 56, estimated marginal = 8.01, SE = 1.23). Shrubs burned in the winter (n = 42, estimated marginal = 15.54, SE = 1.73) produced 1.67-fold greater basketry stems than shrubs burned in the spring (n = 55, estimated marginal = 9.32, SE = 1.05, P < 0.01), and 1.43-fold greater basketry stems than shrubs burned in the fall (n = 113, estimated marginal = 10.89, SE = 0.92, P < 0.05). No other seasonal comparisons exhibited significant differences, and burn char height, dominant overstory tree, canopy closure, annual precipitation, elevation, and slope did not exhibit strong effects on basketry stem production and were removed from the model. Hazelnut shrub plots (n = 30; 400 m2) are set as random effects. df = degree of freedom

From: Revitalized Karuk and Yurok cultural burning to enhance California hazelnut for basketweaving in northwestern California, USA

Fixed effects χ2 df P
Ungulate browse proportion (%) 23.29 1 <0.0001
Pre-burn total stems (n) 116.09 1 <0.0001
Burn season 13.41 3 0.003
Aspect class 10.04 3 0.018