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Table 3 Results of generalized linear mixed effect models used to predict ponderosa pine seedling presence/absence (top) and seedling density (bottom) from ten fires surveyed across Arizona and New Mexico, USA, in 2018 and 2019. Predictor variables were scaled prior to model fitting. Table includes beta coefficient (β), standard error (SE), Z-statistic, and P-value of each predictor. Boldfaced P-value indicates significance (α = 0.05)

From: Moisture and vegetation cover limit ponderosa pine regeneration in high-severity burn patches in the southwestern US

  β SE Z P
Seedling presence/absence model
 Intercept −15.429 7.906 −1.952 0.051
 Slope cosine 2.160 0.782 2.764 0.006
 Oak cover (%) −2.315 0.990 −2.338 0.019
 Curvature 1.547 0.669 2.312 0.021
 Elevation (m) 18.477 8.440 2.189 0.029
Seedling density model
 Intercept 8.490 0.760 11.160 <0.001
 Northness 1.100 0.320 3.460 <0.001
 Grass cover −1.630 0.494 −3.290 <0.001
 Shrub cover −0.850 0.352 −2.430 0.015
 Oak cover (%) −2.580 0.495 −5.210 <0.001
 Distance to nearest tree (m) −0.750 0.378 −1.970 0.048