Skip to main content

Table 1 Continuous variables used to predict observed, artifact- and feature-level fire effects (fire effect) and burn severity class for archaeological sites in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, USA, from 2000 to 2011. Ranges were calculated as mean values for 10 m buffers around 858 recorded point locations of archaeological sites. Climate variables were summarized for the month of fire, fire season (here considered May through September), winter preceding the fire year (December through February), or year of fire, as indicated. Variable definitions are provided in italics. Variable units are specified where present; otherwise, values are indices or dimensionless

From: Predicting wildfire impacts on the prehistoric archaeological record of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, USA

Variable name Range
Canopy bulk density (CBD) 0 to 45 kg m−3 × 100
Measure of density of canopy fuel; higher values = denser fuel
Palmer Drought Severity Index, Fire Season (PDSIfs) −5.5 to −0.6
Regional drought measure; more negative values = drier conditions
Palmer Drought Severity Index, Fire Month (PDSImo) −5.3 to −1
Regional drought measure; more negative values = drier conditions
Energy Release Component, Fire Season (ERCfs) 50.5 to 77.7
Composite fuel moisture index; higher values = drier fuels
Energy Release Component, Fire Month (ERCmo) 44.9 to 103.3
Composite fuel moisture index; higher values = drier fuels
Burning Index, Fire Season (BIfs) 34.7 to 59
Seasonal profile of fire danger and fire behavior; higher values = more extreme fire danger
Burning Index, Fire Month (BImo) 27 to 103.7
Seasonal profile of fire danger and fire behavior; higher values = more extreme fire danger
Departure from 30-year normal mean minimum temperature, Fire Season (TMINfs) 0.99 to 1.45 °C
Degrees cooler or warmer than 30-year normal
Departure from 30-year normal mean minimum temperature, Annual (TMINan) 0.29 to 2.86 °C
Degrees cooler or warmer than 30-year normal
Departure from 30-year normal maximum temperature, Fire Season (TMAXfs) 0.97 to 1.19 °C
Degrees cooler or warmer than 30-year normal
Departure from 30-year normal mean maximum temperature, Annual (TMAXan) −1.29 to 2.62 °C
Degrees cooler or warmer than 30-year normal
Percent of 30-year normal total precipitation, Annual (PRCPan) 32 to 135%
Values above 100% = wetter than 30-year normal
Percent of 30-year normal total precipitation, Winter (DJF) (PRCPwin) 63 to 98%
Values above 100% = wetter than 30-year normal
Percent of 30-year normal total precipitation, Fire Month (PRCPmo) 0 to 103%
Values above 100% = wetter than 30-year normal
Compound Topographic Index (CTI) 3.89 to 16.21
Soil wetness index; higher values = greater soil moisture accumulation
Heat Load Index (HLI) 0.34 to 1.11
Measure of incident surface radiation; higher values = warmer, southwest facing slopes
Linear Aspect (Aspect_Lin) 1.0 to 358.0
Circular to linear transformation
Slope-Cosine-Aspect Index (Aspect_Cos) –0.9 to 1.00
Solar irradiance effects on fuel moisture and fire behavior; more negative values are warmer (southern aspect) or flat areas and positive values are cooler (northern aspect) or steep slopes
Elevation 1705 to 2838 m
Slope 0.45 to 158.5%