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Table 1 Previously published evidence (from 2000 to 2020) for relationships between fire and wildlife disease. We set out to identify studies that tested links between wildfire, prescribed fire, or elements of fire exposure in wild and captive animals. Our search uncovered a selection of effects and mechanisms, including positive, negative, and neutral effects, providing some evidence for elements of our fire-disease framework. In the “effect” column, plus sign (+) denotes positive, exacerbating, or increasing relationships; minus sign (−) denotes negative, inhibitory, or decreasing relationships. Findings in parentheses denote an effect on immunity but no proven impact on disease; plus/minus sign (+/−) denotes a combination of positive and negative effects; zero (0) denotes no detected effect. For each example, we include the location, the pyrosystem (the type of fire and the vegetation involved), the animal, and the parasite involved. We also include the explanation for the observed pattern; when there was no detected effect of fire on disease, no explanation is given and the cell is left blank

From: From flames to inflammation: how wildfires affect patterns of wildlife disease

Reference pyrosystem Hosts Pathogen or immune metric Effect Suggested mechanism
Parker-Fann 2020
Virginia, USA, forest; prescribed burn treatment
  Migrating birds, mammals through tick vector Ixodes Latreille, 1795 sp. Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992 0  
Pascoe et al. 2020
California, USA, blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. & Arn) woodland vegetation; major fire sparked by vehicle exhaust
  Rodents, small mammals through tick vectors Ixodes sp., Dermacentor C.L.Koch, 1844 sp. Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie 1949) Dumler et al. 2001 - Destruction of environmental parasites
Ecke et al. 2019
Sweden coniferous forest; major fire after fire-suppression regime
  Bank vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumula orthohantavirus + Greater contact rates in refugia
Jones et al. 2018
Western Australia bushland; intense ground and canopy bushfire
  Woylie (Bettongia peniciallata) Ticks and lice 0  
MacDonald et al. 2018
Southern California, USA, oak woodland; major fire sparked by cooking site
  Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard, 1852), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes Baird, 1858), California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus Caton, 1876) Borrelia burgdorferi +/- Changes in competent host composition, and environmental parasite destruction
Western fence lizard through tick vector Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, 1943 Borrelia burgdorferi 0  
Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner, 1845) through tick vector Ixodes pacificus Borrelia burgdorferi 0  
Dusky-footed woodrat through tick vector Ixodes pacificus Borrelia burgdorferi - Fire significantly reduced pathogen reservoir host population
California mule deer through tick vector Ixodes pacificus Borrelia burgdorferi - Fire reduced host activity, decreasing tick populations and negatively impacting pathogen transmission
Ortega 2018
Florida, USA, wiregrass (Aristida stricta Michaux), pine (Pinus L. spp.) straw, myrtles (Myrica cerifera L.), saw palmettos (Serenoa repens [Bartram] J.K.Small); prescribed burn treatment
  Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis Trueb & Tyler, 1974) Aplectana sp. nematode - Burns kill larvae in the soil while also reducing recruitment to adult subpopulation
Cuban tree frog Acuariid nematodes + Acuariid nematode abundance increases as arthropod diversity or abundance increase post-fire, facilitating predation by birds needed for the Acuariid life cycle
Cuban tree frog Trematode metacercariae + Burns enhance freshwater productivity, and are hence beneficial to freshwater snails, that are the intermediate hosts
Black et al. 2017
Northern California, USA, forests; major fires in regular fire regime
  Rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta Zimmermann, 1780) Immune regulation (+) Negative impact of wildfire smoke exposure in monkeys
Sokos et al. 2016
Greece Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis, Miller), broadleaf shrubs, and agricultural fields; moderate and severe fires
  Brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) European Brown Hare Syndrome virus 0  
Bowen et al. 2015
Central California, USA, chaparral and oak woodland; major fire in regular fire regime
  Sea otter (Enhydra lutris) Immune transcriptomics (+) Pyrogenic chemicals require changes in immune expression to detoxify
Fuentes et al. 2010
Spain forests and cultivated land; major fire in regular fire regime
  Wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus, 1758) Helminths 0  
Hossack et al. 2013b
Montana, USA, wetlands; regular fire regimes
  Boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) Chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) - Post-fire environment non-favorable to the pathogen, may increase resistance
Hossack et al. 2013a
Montana, USA, wetlands; regular fire regimes
  Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1950) Soil-transmitted nematode (Cosmocercoides variabili Harwood, 1930) - Fire decreased salamander abundance, rendered soil conditions unsuitable for the pathogen
Columbia spotted frog (Rana pretiosa luteiventris Thompson, 1913) Aquatically transmitted nematode (Gyrinicola batrachiensis Walton, 1929) + Burn increased tadpole density