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Table 3 Model output from generalized linear mixed models of seed supply (fire interval and pre-fire canopy seedbank) and covariate effects on three measures of post-fire regeneration. Estimated effects for each predictor are standardized effect sizes (per two standard deviations)

From: Fire interval and post-fire climate effects on serotinous forest resilience

Post-fire seedling density ~ Fire interval + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + soil clay content + HLI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 8.912 8.624 9.201 60.47 < 0.001
Fire interval 2.555 1.945 3.165 8.21 < 0.001
Post-fire CMD −0.882 −1.758 −0.005 −1.97 0.049
Shrub cover −0.077 −0.804 0.650 −0.21 0.836
Soil clay content −0.529 −1.262 0.205 −1.41 0.158
HLI 0.301 −0.359 0.962 0.89 0.372
Post-fire seedling density ~ Pre-fire canopy seed bank + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + depth to bedrock + TPI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 9.001 8.783 9.218 81.13 < 0.001
Pre-fire canopy seed bank 2.678 2.311 3.046 14.29 < 0.001
Post-fire CMD −0.458 −1.046 0.131 −1.52 0.127
Shrub cover 0.315 −0.176 0.806 1.26 0.209
Depth to bedrock 0.753 0.187 1.320 2.61 0.009
TPI −0.275 −0.891 0.342 −0.87 0.383
Probability of knobcone pine self-replacement ~ Fire interval + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + soil clay content + TPI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 0.516 −0.564 1.597 0.936 0.349
Fire interval 9.085 2.908 15.263 2.883 0.004
Post-fire CMD −2.313 −4.591 −0.036 −1.991 0.046
Shrub cover −2.296 −4.936 0.345 −1.704 0.088
Soil clay content −0.303 −2.759 2.152 −0.242 0.809
TPI 0.590 −1.552 2.732 0.540 0.589
Probability of knobcone pine self-replacement  ~ Pre-fire canopy seed bank + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + depth to bedrock + TPI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 1.183 0.131 2.236 2.204 0.028
Pre-fire canopy seed bank 2.267 0.842 3.693 3.118 0.002
Post-fire CMD −0.561 −2.555 1.433 −0.551 0.581
Shrub cover −0.608 −2.007 0.790 −0.852 0.394
Depth to bedrock 1.538 −0.356 3.432 1.592 0.111
TPI 0.462 −1.098 2.021 0.580 0.562
Percent population recovery ~ Fire interval + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + soil clay content + HLI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 5.425 5.204 5.645 48.16 < 0.001
Fire interval 2.976 2.435 3.518 10.77 < 0.001
Post-fire CMD −0.906 −1.440 −0.372 −3.33 < 0.001
Shrub cover −0.227 −0.828 0.373 −0.74 0.458
Soil clay content −0.383 −0.981 0.215 −1.25 0.210
HLI 0.608 0.133 1.083 2.51 0.012
Percent population recovery  ~ Pre-fire canopy seed bank + post-fire CMD + shrub cover + depth to bedrock + TWI + TPI | sample fire
   95% CI   
Predictor β Lower Upper Z p
Intercept 6.899 5.843 7.954 12.816 < 0.001
Pre-fire canopy seed bank 2.225 1.587 2.862 6.837 < 0.001
Post-fire CMD 0.740 −0.530 2.009 1.142 0.253
Shrub cover −0.361 −1.252 0.531 −0.793 0.428
Depth to bedrock 1.528 0.594 2.461 3.206 0.001
TWI −0.787 −1.608 0.035 −1.876 0.061
TPI −0.199 −1.275 0.877 −0.363 0.717
  1. CMD Climatic moisture deficit, HLI Heat load index, TPI Topographic position index, TWI Topographic wetness index