GAM smooth functions across the gradient in topographic complexity (shown on x-axis) at each of the nine fires. The y-axis is scaled by the smooth function of x, and dotted lines are 95 % confidence intervals. Cerro Grande, Viveash, Pumpkin, Poplar-Big-Rose, and Oso exhibited an increase in severity with topographic complexity at the lower end of the gradient (focus on area with concentration of sample points, i.e., as indicated on the x-axis rug). Severity decreased only at the extreme end of the gradient at Pumpkin and Oso, where points were more scattered. Severity at Outlet, Saddle Mountain, Dome, and La Mesa generally decreased with topographic complexity, with some areas exhibiting no change at Outlet and Saddle Mountain. Note: increased values of DIVISION (Outlet graph) correspond to lower severity by definition.