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Table 3 Mean (SE) understory and overstory attributes within ponderosa pine prescribed fire burn units by time since burned for a second entry fire. All percentages represent percent cover measurements. Letters represent significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between treatment years using PERMANOVA; n = 11 plots. QUGA = Gambel oak, PIPO = ponderosa pine. Data from permanent monitoring plots located at Zion National Park, Utah, USA.

From: Evaluating Prescribed Fire Effectiveness Using Permanent Monitoring Plot Data: A Case Study

  Pre fire Post-fire years since fire
  1 2
Understory cover (%)    
   Shrub cover 22.2 (5.3)a 8.7 (2.8)b 11.6 (3.7)b
   QUGA cover 23.3 (4.6) 16.3 (4.4) 19.1 (3.3)
   Forb cover 9.3 (2.6) 7.3 (1.2) 9.5 (1.8)
   Perennial graminoid cover 7.6 (4.4) 3.6 (2.) 3.2 (2.0)
   Total understory vegetation cover 63.1 (8.4)a 34.8 (5.2)b 44.5 (4.5)b
Overstory and midstory    
   PIPO overstory basal area (m2 ha−1) 24.6 (2.8) 24.5 (2.8) 23.7 (3.1)
   PIPO midstory basal area (m2 ha−1) 1.4 (0.4) 0.6 (0.3) 0.7 (0.3)
   QUGA overstory density (trees ha−1) 17.3 (15.4) 10.0 (10.0) 10.0 (10.0)
   QUGA midstory density (trees ha−1) 396.4 (198.4)a 20.9 (11.8)b 32.7 (20.1)b