Potential fire behavior predicted from 2013 to 2063 using the Fire and Fuels Effects-Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS). Pre-outbreak stands (n = 6) are stands that were sampled prior to western spruce budworm (WSBW) outbreaks. Outbreaks stands (n = 4) were sampled in 2013 during a current outbreak. Bars represent the means and lines represent standard deviation at 10-year intervals. Proportion of live basal area experiencing mortality as a result of wildfire under moderate fire weather conditions (a) and severe fire weather conditions (b). Crowning indices or wind speed required to result in a canopy fire based on stand conditions (c), and torching indices or wind speed required for torching of individual trees to occur (d). Canopy bulk density or the density of fuels in the canopy (e), and canopy base height, distance from the forest floor to the base of the continuous canopy (f). Flame lengths under moderate (g) and severe (h) fire weather condition.