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Table 1 Stand level metrics (mean and SD) for four spruce-fir WSBW outbreak stands located in northern New Mexico, USA. Different letters indicate significant differences between stands using Wilcoxon rank sign test (α < 0.05); no letters indicate no significant differences between stands.

From: The Influence of Western Spruce Budworm on Fire in Spruce-Fir Forests

Stand Bunker Hill Cold Spring Mount Taylor Bobcat Canyon
Detected defoliation (yr) 8.7 (3.2)a 9.7 (0.9)a 11.6 (2.0)b 12.2 (1.5)b
Defoliation (%) 11.0 (4.2)a 12.8 (3.0)a 30.7 (17.2)b 20.5 (7.0)b
Elevation (m) 3287.6 (44.2)a 3172.8 (47.1)b 3114.8 (58.6)c 3017.4 (21.4)d
Slope (%) 20.2 (8.3) 16.3 (7.0) 19.8 (10.4) 17.4 (6.7)
Canopy cover (%) 51.3 (15.8) 51.4 (13.1) 57.6 (15.0) 51.5 (17.3)
Aspect (°) 131.4 (120.4) 141.6 (147.0) 126.7 (142.5) 138.1 (6.7)