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Table 2 Mean basal area and trees per hectare for stands in northern New Mexico under western spruce budworm outbreak and pre-outbreak conditions. Pre-outbreak stand values are shown using Forest Vegetation Simulator outputs from stands grown to 2013. Outbreak stand values as reported in Polinko (2014) and calculated using 2013 outbreak stand data. Different letters indicate significant differences between pre-outbreak and outbreak stands using Wilcoxon rank sign test (α < 0.05). Percent dead and live were not included in statistical comparisons. Fuel loads (Mg ha−1) were calculated from stands in northern New Mexico under western spruce budworm outbreak (outbreak). Fuel loading data was not available for the pre-outbreak time period. Standard errors shown in parentheses.

From: The Influence of Western Spruce Budworm on Fire in Spruce-Fir Forests

  Mean basal area (m2ha−1) Condition
Stand type   Dead Live Total Dead (%)   Live (%)
Pre-outbreak   4.1a 57.8a 61.8a 6.5 93.5
(n = 6)   (2.1) (5.4) (7.4)
Outbreak   20.8b 30.9b 50.8a 40.9 60.9
(n = 4)   (8.2) (7.0) (14.9)
  Trees per hectare Condition
Stand type   Dead Live Total Dead (%)   Live (%)
Pre-outbreak   205.2a 2016.7a 2221.9a 9.2 90.7
(n = 6)   (97.9) (535.5) (568.4)    
Outbreak   478.0b 500.0b 978.0b 48.9 51.1
(n = 4)   (105.7) (76.8) (106.5)    
Fuel loading (Mg ha −1)
Stand type 1-hour 10-hour 100-hour 1000-hour (sound) 1000-hour (decayed) Litter Duff Total
Outbreak 0.62 2.31 6.56 124.11 67.50 18.90 46.58 266.57
(n = 4) (0.15) (0.42) (1.50) (49.86) (30.30) (2.20) (5.03) (86.16)