Point estimates (dots) and 95 % CIs (lines) on parameters from statistical models. The parameters describe effects of listed variables on A) probabilities that ponderosa pine crowns were scorched, and B) among trees that were scorched, the percentage of the crown that was scorched. Vertical axes are positioned at the mean for fall-burned, not-raked trees (i.e., baseline treatment), so CIs that do not overlap vertical axes are significantly different than the baseline (P < 0.025). In estimating effects of the variables on percent crown scorch, trees that did not experience crown scorch were excluded from the analysis. Fuel, DBH, and hill slope CIs indicate effects of elevating these variables 1.0 SD above their mean, so, for example, trees with greater than average DBH experienced lower than average probability of crown scorch.