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Table 1a Non-native understory species list with life history (A = annual, B = biennial, P = perennial) and form (G = ramminoid, F = herb) from USDA Plants Database and non-native plant harmfulness rating from California-Integrated Pest Management (CA-IPM) (Bell et al. 2015, USDA NRCS 2016). For each treatment and its season of application, the average plant count is calculated across four experimental units that each have five quadrats that are five square meters in which understory plants were counted by species. Years since treatments 9, 10, and 11 are merged into one year since treatment, 10, for this table. Asterisks (*) were used when standard errors could not be calculated because the species was only present once. Blank space indicates that a plant was not present. CA-IPM harmfulness ratings include the following. H = high: these species have severe ecological impacts on physical processes, plant and animal communities, and vegetation structure. Their reproductive biology and other attributes are conducive to moderate to high rates of dispersal and establishment. Most are widely distributed ecologically. M = moderate: these species have substantial and apparent, but generally not severe, ecological impacts on physical processes, plant and animal communities, and vegetation structure. Their reproductive biology and other attributes are conducive to moderate to high rates of dispersal, although establishment is generally dependent upon ecological disturbance. Ecological amplitude and distribution may range from limited to widespread. L = limited: these species are invasive but their ecological impacts are minor on a statewide level or there was not enough information to justify a higher score. Their reproductive biology and other attributes result in low to moderate rates of invasiveness. Ecological amplitude and distribution are generally limited, but these species may be locally persistent and problematic.

From: Decade-Long Plant Community Responses to Shrubland Fuel Hazard Reduction

   Treatment
   Control Fire-fall Fire-spring Fire-winter Mastication-fall Mastication-spring
   Growing seasons since treatment
   0 0 2 3 10 0 2 3 10 0 2 3 10 0 2 3 10 0 2 3 10
Scientific name Life history, form, and ranking Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE Average SE
Aira caryophyllea L. A, G 140 38 30 20 107 43 80 21 93 83 2 * 40 19 205 87 61 38    70 63 14 7 36 31 150 21 551 107 574 85 107 24 239 25 164 43 372 71 137 28
Lnagallis arvensis L. A and B, F      9 * 41 24      1                 20 19 4 2 2 *    8 1 6 4 5 3
Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb. A, F      7 *                                     
Avena fatua L. A, G, M                              3 *          2 *   
Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv. A, G, M        2 *                          83 *         
Briza maxima L. A, G, L                                5 *           
Briza minor L. A, G                                7 *        1 *   
Bromus hordeaceus L. A, G, L    20 * 1 <1 3 1              1 *        38 16 51 48 19 5 1 * 2 1 10 5 14 10
Bromus rubens L. A, G, H      16 8 19 11 21 *    1 * 8 *      4 *    2 *    76 40 78 50 27 11 10 * 3 1 5 2 58 54
Carduus pycnocephalus L. A, F, M                                1 *      1 *     
Centaurea melitensis L. A and B, F, M      50 48 60 45      2 1 1 *              2 1 5 2 13 4      2 1   
Centaurea solstitialis L. A, F, H                              11 *             
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. A, F        1 <1              1 *      2 * 7 6      7 * 4 3 356 *   
Crassula tillaea Lester-Garland A, F      13 11                2 *        1 <1        8 3    4 *
Cynosurus echinatus L. A, G, M        1 *                      4 1        1 <1 4 1   
Dactylis glomerata L. P, G, L    3 2                        5 1               
Erodium brachycarpum (Godr.) Thell A, F                1 *              3 *            7 *
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. ex Aiton ssp. cicutarium A and B, H, L        1 *                                1 *   
Galium L. sp. A, F                2 <1              8 7    47 34 1 *    1 *   
Galium murale (L.) All. A, F                                  5 3        8 3
Galium parisiense L. A, F 50 *    79 59 21 13      7 4 2 <1 11 4    2 1 40 39 5 1 4 3 36 20 75 42 24 10    95 87 5 3 12 3
Gastridium phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubbard A, G 30 *    67 26 67 28      15 6 109 76 14 11    177 89 180 106    19 4 95 31 360 88 10 3 22 9 16 12 83 39 11 6
Holcus lanatus L. P, F, M                              1 <1 1 *           
H. ypochaeris glabra L. A, F, L      13 11 2 1      1 <1        3 1 1 *      10 2 70 32 50 20    2 <1 50 14 17 12
Lactuca saligna L. A and B, F                2 *      4 <1        4 1        1 <1 3 1   
Lactuca serriola L. A, and B, F      3 1 1 <1      1 <1 1 <1      3 1        2 <1 4 1      1 <1 6 1   
Logfia gallica (L.) Coss. & Germ. A, F 14 7 50 <1 93 35 95 29 11 8 33 * 7 2 52 16 25 24 50 * 17 15 8 2    37 13 240 54 632 135 18 6 40 11 36 18 84 17 21 4
Phalaris aquatica L. P, G, M      1 *                                     
Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. A and P, G, L      2 1 6 *              4 *                     
Poaceae A, G 2 *    7 3 12 8      8 2 20 13      6 2 6 3      21 10 1 * 1 *    4 2 3 1   
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. A, G, L        39 *                                   
Senecio vulgaris L. A and B, F      2 1 1 <1      1 *          1 *      1 <1 1 *      1 <1 4 1   
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill A, F      2 <1 1 *      2 *        2 <1      2 * 2 * 2 1      1 <1 4 2   
Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski A, G, H        6 *      1 *                7 5          1 <1   
Tolpis barbata (L.) Gaertn. A, F      3 1 3 2                                   
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link A, F, M      5 3 8 6        1 *      1 *        7 3 22 11      2 1 9 6   
Trifolium dubium Sibth. A, F      3 *                                     
Trifolium hirtum All. A, F, L      1 <1 1 *      1 *                21 *             
Verbascum thapsus L. B, F, L                                      1 * 1 *   
Vulpia bromoides (L.) Gray A, G 14 5    59 33 4 1 25 20 20 * 7 6 11 7      55 34 5 3 48 33 54 33 270 70 166 48 253 68    179 78 234 52 123 26
Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel. A, G, M 1 * 63 13 120 103 84 47      2 1 8 7    3 *    3 1    80 15 51 15 219 128 163 72 71 17 2 1 97 35 97 45
All non-native understory plants 97 27 35 9 56 12 52 9 33   18 9 11 3 67 19 31 14 27 24 39 15 28 13 26 13 90 11 155 21 245 31 90 16 124 16 62 14 99 13 75 11