Simulations at 400 s after ignition for low wind speed (first column), at 200 s after ignition for moderate wind speed (second column), and at 150 s for high wind speed (third column). The first row is green phase, second row is gray phase 20 % mortality (gray20), third row is gray phase 58 % mortality (gray58), and fourth row is gray phase 100 % mortality (gray100). Colors on the horizontal ground plane indicate bulk densities of surface fuels. Live tree locations are green, dead tree locations are brown. Burned areas of the canopy are black. The orange, red, and gray isosurfaces indicate areas of hot gases.