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Table 3 Canopy mass loss after bark beetles alone (Mb), fire alone (Mf), the combination of bark beetles and fire (Mbf), and the combination of bark beetles and fire assuming disturbances were independent (Mb+f). Phases are green (no mortality), red, and gray with 20 %, 58 %, and 100 % bark beetle-caused mortality of ponderosa pine trees at low (10 m sec−1), moderate (20 m sec−1), and high (40 m sec−1) wind speeds.

From: Fires Following Bark Beetles: Factors Controlling Severity and Disturbance Interactions in Ponderosa Pine

   Low wind speed Moderate wind speed High wind speed
Phase M b M f M bf M b+f M f M bf M b+f M f M bf M b+f
Green 0.00 0.30    0.67    0.82   
Red20 0.14   0.41 0.40   0.74 0.72   0.85 0.84
Red58 0.40   0.68 0.58   0.85 0.80   0.90 0.89
Red100 0.69   0.87 0.79   0.92 0.90   0.95 0.94
Gray20 0.13   0.45 0.40   0.63 0.72   0.82 0.84
Gray58 0.39   0.56 0.58   0.73 0.80   0.85 0.89
Gray100 0.72   0.77 0.79   0.85 0.90   0.88 0.94