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Table 4 Synergism indices, defined as the factor of increase of canopy mass loss required for the second disturbance agent (here, fire) to reach the same mass loss assuming independence or, equivalently, the deviation of the ratio between mass loss in surviving trees and mass loss in green-phase unattacked stands. If Syn = 0, the disturbances are neutral (N); values >0 indicate synergistic disturbances (+), and values <0 indicate antagonistic disturbances (−). Bolded values differ from zero by >0.05. Values <0.05 are neutral (N); degrees of synergism are denoted as: (+) for values >0.1, (++) for values >0.2, and (+++) for values >0.5. Degrees of antagonism are denoted as (−) for values <−0.1, (- -) for values <−0.2, and (- - -) for values <−0.5.

From: Fires Following Bark Beetles: Factors Controlling Severity and Disturbance Interactions in Ponderosa Pine

Phase Low wind Moderate wind High wind
Red20 0.0194 (N) 0.0309 (N) 0.0082 (N)
Red58 0.530 (+++) 0.0968 (+) 0.0230 (N)
Red100 0.890 (+++) 0.117 (+) 0.0212 (N)
Gray20 0.202 (++) −0.130 () −0.0165 (N)
Gray58 −0.0793 (−) −0.169 (−) −0.0758 (−)
Gray100 −0.338 (- -) −0.289 (- -) −0.269 (- -)