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Table 2 Species (fauna and flora) of conservation importance at Mkambati Nature Reserve, their conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red list of threatened species, their ecological characteristics relevant to fire management, and potential impacts of fire regimes.

From: Characterizing a Poacher-Driven Fire Regime in Low-Nutrient Coastal Grasslands of Pondoland, South Africa

Species Status Ecological characteristics Potential impacts of fire regimes
Brunia trigyna (Schltr.) Class.-Bockh. & E.G.H. Oliv. Critically endangered5 Slow-growing large woody shrub; subpopulations are extremely fragmented5 Sensitive to frequent fires (grows in sites protected from fire)5
Watsonia pondoensis Goldblatt Endangered5 Geophyte Sensitive to frequent fire and overgrazing5
Leucospermum innovans Rourke Endangered5 Resprouting shrub; myrmecochorous, thus requires high fire intensities to stimulate seed germination1 Too-frequent fire may result in inadequate seed production and poor recruitment5
Kniphofia drepanophylla Baker Vulnerable5 Geophyte Sensitive to frequent fires associated with heavy grazing and trampling5
Leucadendron spissifolium (Salisb. ex Knight) I. Williams ssp. oribinum Vulnerable5 Slow-growing woody shrub; dioecious; serotinous; resprouter1 Too-frequent fire may result in inadequate seed production and poor recruitment5
Leucadendron spissifolium ssp. natalense (Thode & Gilg) I. Williams Near threatened5 Slow-growing woody shrub; dioecious; serotinous; resprouter1 Too-frequent fire may result in inadequate seed production and poor recruitment5
Hyperolius poweri Loveridge Not assessed (due to recent taxonomic change)8 Frog associated with emergent vegetation on the margins of swamps8 Sensitive to habitat loss as a result of regular fire (loss of cover)3
Breviceps bagginsi Minter Endangered6 Frog favoring habitat associated with grassland8,4 Sensitive to habitat loss as a result of regular fire (loss of cover)3
Bradypodion caffer Boettger Endangered8 Chameleon represents a grassland ecomorph of B. caffer; only occurs in natural grassland8 Require long fire free intervals to facilitate dispersal8
Insecta (73 species found are endemic to South Africa, and at least 18 species endemic to Mkambati) 21 species not yet assessed by IUCN and thus listed as endangered2 Burning is known to influence invertebrate communities, but further research is required in this diverse group2 Burning positively influences species richness; highest numbers of endemic species were found in unburned vegetation2,7
  1. 1Rebelo (1995)
  2. 2Hamer and Slotow (2017)
  3. 3Masterson et al. (2008)
  4. 4du Preez and Carruthers (2009)
  5. 5Raimondo et al. (2015)
  6. 6South African Frog Re-Assessment Group (SA-Frog) (2010)
  7. 7Dippenaar-Schoeman et al. (2011)
  8. 8Venter and Conradie (2015)