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Table 1 Common themes for management addressed by PGIS participants (n = 37) were organized into perceived impacts on gathering of cultural plants and materials, management recommendations, and desired outcome of mechanical thinning, prescribed fire, and wildfire. NA = those comments that included a perceived impact and desired outcome but not a management suggestion. Depends = the impact depends on whether or not the desired outcome is met

From: Getting back to fire suméŝ: exploring a multi-disciplinary approach to incorporating traditional knowledge into fuels treatments

Perceived impactManagement suggestionDesired outcome
Mechanical thinning
 BeneficialMore treatmentsNative plants benefit
 BeneficialNAReduce stand-replacing fire
 BeneficialNAReduce smoke
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHuckleberry plants become healthier
 BeneficialMore treatmentsAccess improves for public and tribal members
 BeneficialMore treatmentsAccess improves for public and tribal members
 BeneficialMore treatmentsCedar roots straighter and better quality for basketry
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHuckleberry berries grow larger
 BeneficialMore treatmentsThin understory vegetation
 BeneficialMore treatmentsAccess improves for public and tribal members
 BeneficialNAAccess improves for public and tribal members
 BeneficialMore treatmentsNative plants benefit
 BeneficialMore treatmentsThinned understory vegetation more productive
 BeneficialMore treatmentsThinned understory vegetation more productive
 BeneficialMore treatmentsNative plants benefit
 DamagingNAAssess short-term damage from operations
 DamagingLess roadsHuckleberries not overpicked or overbrowsed
 DamagingLess roads and log deckingAvoid damaging medicinal foods
 DamagingLess roadsReduce heavy metals in edible and medicinal plants
 DamagingLess treatmentsUnderstory vegetation grows bigger and better
 DamagingLess treatmentsDamaged native plants need shade and water to recover
 DamagingLess treatmentsAvoid damage to native plants so they return
 DamagingNatural fire is bestForest ecology and cultural plants benefit most from natural fire
 DamagingReduce commercial tree selectionPrioritize tree-take based on forest need, not money
 DependsNAManagement practice depends on species focus
 DependsNAManagement practice depends on species focus
 DependsNAShort-term damage for long-term benefits
 DependsCombine with fireFire-adapted traditional plants benefit
 DependsCombine with fireStimulate traditional plant growth
 DependsRemove slashAvoid excessive ignitions due to slash accumulation
 DependsRemove slashImprove access to food, medicines, and firewood
Prescribed burning
 BeneficialMore treatmentsImprove access for elders
 BeneficialMore treatmentsFire-adapted traditional plants flourish
 BeneficialMore treatmentsImproves wildlife corridors
 BeneficialMore treatmentsImproves cultural plants
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHealthier medicinal plant communities
 BeneficialMore treatmentsImprove access
 BeneficialMore treatmentsRejuvenates plants and nutrients in plants
 BeneficialMore treatmentsReproduces new growth and increases nutrients in plants
 BeneficialMore treatmentsIncrease mushroom gathering opportunities
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHuckleberry berries grow larger
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHuckleberry plants become healthier
 BeneficialMore treatmentsFire-adapted plants benefit
 BeneficialMore treatmentsFire-adapted plants benefit
 BeneficialMore treatmentsAllows native plants to regenerate and eliminate competition
 BeneficialMore treatmentsBurned understory vegetation healthier and more productive
 BeneficialMore treatmentsImproves overall forest health
 BeneficialMore treatmentsReduce stand-replacing fire
 BeneficialMore treatmentsHealthier medicinal plant communities and ecosystem
 DamagingLess treatmentsPrevent disturbing the cultural plants too much
 DependsNAWork with tribe to protect sensitive cultural spots
 DependsMimic natural variabilityProduce natural patchiness
 DependsDepends on timingTime around when most beneficial to cultural plants
 DependsNAImproves availability of cultural plants and reduces invasive plants
 DependsNAPrevent favoring invasive species
 DependsMore wildfireNot a viable investment
 DependsMimic natural variabilityPlants need areas of lower intensity so they can re-establish
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeClears excessive overgrowth and opens up habitat for cultural plants
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeMakes cultural plants stronger
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeAllows cultural plant rebirth
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeClears weeds
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeBigger berries and healthier producing trees
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeMakes cultural plants more available
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeImproves overall forest health
 BeneficialAllow to burn when safeHelps clear soil of weeds
 DamagingMore treatmentsKeep wildfires on the ground and out of the canopy
 DependsLeave burned areas aloneArea recovers and wildlife return if tractors and logging equipment stays out
 DependsDon’t let fire burn too hotPrevent damage to cultural plants
 DependsAvoid post-fire removal of debrisPrevent damage to cultural plants
 DependsAllow to burn when safePrevent spread of invasive plants from suppression tactics and equipment