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Table 1 Common themes for management addressed by PGIS participants (n = 37) were organized into perceived impacts on gathering of cultural plants and materials, management recommendations, and desired outcome of mechanical thinning, prescribed fire, and wildfire. NA = those comments that included a perceived impact and desired outcome but not a management suggestion. Depends = the impact depends on whether or not the desired outcome is met

From: Getting back to fire suméŝ: exploring a multi-disciplinary approach to incorporating traditional knowledge into fuels treatments

Perceived impact Management suggestion Desired outcome
Mechanical thinning
 Beneficial More treatments Native plants benefit
 Beneficial NA Reduce stand-replacing fire
 Beneficial NA Reduce smoke
 Beneficial More treatments Huckleberry plants become healthier
 Beneficial More treatments Access improves for public and tribal members
 Beneficial More treatments Access improves for public and tribal members
 Beneficial More treatments Cedar roots straighter and better quality for basketry
 Beneficial More treatments Huckleberry berries grow larger
 Beneficial More treatments Thin understory vegetation
 Beneficial More treatments Access improves for public and tribal members
 Beneficial NA Access improves for public and tribal members
 Beneficial More treatments Native plants benefit
 Beneficial More treatments Thinned understory vegetation more productive
 Beneficial More treatments Thinned understory vegetation more productive
 Beneficial More treatments Native plants benefit
 Damaging NA Assess short-term damage from operations
 Damaging Less roads Huckleberries not overpicked or overbrowsed
 Damaging Less roads and log decking Avoid damaging medicinal foods
 Damaging Less roads Reduce heavy metals in edible and medicinal plants
 Damaging Less treatments Understory vegetation grows bigger and better
 Damaging Less treatments Damaged native plants need shade and water to recover
 Damaging Less treatments Avoid damage to native plants so they return
 Damaging Natural fire is best Forest ecology and cultural plants benefit most from natural fire
 Damaging Reduce commercial tree selection Prioritize tree-take based on forest need, not money
 Depends NA Management practice depends on species focus
 Depends NA Management practice depends on species focus
 Depends NA Short-term damage for long-term benefits
 Depends Combine with fire Fire-adapted traditional plants benefit
 Depends Combine with fire Stimulate traditional plant growth
 Depends Remove slash Avoid excessive ignitions due to slash accumulation
 Depends Remove slash Improve access to food, medicines, and firewood
Prescribed burning
 Beneficial More treatments Improve access for elders
 Beneficial More treatments Fire-adapted traditional plants flourish
 Beneficial More treatments Improves wildlife corridors
 Beneficial More treatments Improves cultural plants
 Beneficial More treatments Healthier medicinal plant communities
 Beneficial More treatments Improve access
 Beneficial More treatments Rejuvenates plants and nutrients in plants
 Beneficial More treatments Reproduces new growth and increases nutrients in plants
 Beneficial More treatments Increase mushroom gathering opportunities
 Beneficial More treatments Huckleberry berries grow larger
 Beneficial More treatments Huckleberry plants become healthier
 Beneficial More treatments Fire-adapted plants benefit
 Beneficial More treatments Fire-adapted plants benefit
 Beneficial More treatments Allows native plants to regenerate and eliminate competition
 Beneficial More treatments Burned understory vegetation healthier and more productive
 Beneficial More treatments Improves overall forest health
 Beneficial More treatments Reduce stand-replacing fire
 Beneficial More treatments Healthier medicinal plant communities and ecosystem
 Damaging Less treatments Prevent disturbing the cultural plants too much
 Depends NA Work with tribe to protect sensitive cultural spots
 Depends Mimic natural variability Produce natural patchiness
 Depends Depends on timing Time around when most beneficial to cultural plants
 Depends NA Improves availability of cultural plants and reduces invasive plants
 Depends NA Prevent favoring invasive species
 Depends More wildfire Not a viable investment
 Depends Mimic natural variability Plants need areas of lower intensity so they can re-establish
Wildfire
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Clears excessive overgrowth and opens up habitat for cultural plants
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Makes cultural plants stronger
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Allows cultural plant rebirth
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Clears weeds
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Bigger berries and healthier producing trees
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Makes cultural plants more available
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Improves overall forest health
 Beneficial Allow to burn when safe Helps clear soil of weeds
 Damaging More treatments Keep wildfires on the ground and out of the canopy
 Depends Leave burned areas alone Area recovers and wildlife return if tractors and logging equipment stays out
 Depends Don’t let fire burn too hot Prevent damage to cultural plants
 Depends Avoid post-fire removal of debris Prevent damage to cultural plants
 Depends Allow to burn when safe Prevent spread of invasive plants from suppression tactics and equipment