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Table 3 Results from structural equation model of mediating variables affecting chaparral ecosystem recovery one and twelve years after the southern California, USA, Old and Simi fires of 2003. Direct relationships with P < 0.05 in bold and italics; P < 0.10 in italics; dNBR = differenced Normalized Burn Ratio

From: Got shrubs? Precipitation mediates long-term shrub and introduced grass dynamics in chaparral communities after fire

Independent variableMediating variableDependent variableModel estimateStandard errorZ-valueP-value
Mean annual precipitationdNBR 2003Introduced cover 2004−0.350.13−2.650.01
Mean annual precipitationTime between fires 2015Shrub cover 20150.150.081.840.07
Mean annual precipitationNumber of reburns 2004Shrub cover 2004−0.100.04−2.710.01
Mean annual precipitationNumber of reburns 2015Shrub cover 2015−0.170.09−1.910.05
dNBR 2003dNBR 2008Introduced cover 2015−0.050.01−3.65<0.001
Time between fires 2015Shrub cover 2015Introduced cover 2015−0.130.08−1.720.09
Number of reburns 2004Shrub cover 2004Introduced cover 2004−0.760.46−1.630.10
Number of reburns 2015Shrub cover 2015Introduced cover 2015−2.881.58−1.820.07