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Table 2 Literature that tested the effect of severity on tree regeneration density. Region, severity at which lower regeneration density was observed, and the major findings in relation to severity and its relationship to tree regeneration

From: Tree regeneration following wildfires in the western US: a review

Study US Region Severity with lower regeneration Major findings
Keyser et al. 2008 Black Hills, South Dakota High severity Regeneration at high burn severity sites consistently lower than low to moderate severity.
Stevens-Rumann et al. 2012 Black Hills, South Dakota >40% tree mortality Only 13 out of 50 plots had any regeneration
Stevens-Rumann et al. 2012 Southwest >60% tree mortality Only 10 out of 60 plots had regeneration across all severities
Shive et al. 2013 Southwest Low severity Pine regeneration was highest in high-severity burned areas
Crotteau et al. 2013 Pacific Southwest High severity 6 to 9 times lower densities in high severity sites. Mean density of 710 trees ha−1 in high severity sites
Meigs et al. 2009 Pacific Northwest High severity In ponderosa pine forest high burn severity sites, no seedlings were observed. In mixed conifer forests, mean was below 500 trees ha−1 compared to means above 5000 trees ha−1 in low to moderate severity sites
Larson and Franklin 2005 Pacific Northwest Low severity Douglas-fir regeneration increased with burn severity but other species did not vary by severity and seedling abundance was high across all sites
Coop and Schoettle 2009 Southern Rocky Mountains No effect of severity Compared complete burn (100% canopy mortality) to partial burn (<100% canopy mortality): regeneration patterns varied by fire and species, no strong correlation to burn severity
Coop et al. 2010 Southern Rocky Mountains No effect of severity Complete burn (100% canopy mortality) had the most regeneration but declined at farther distances to high-severity edge compared partial burns (<100% tree mortality)
Rother and Veblen 2016 Southern Rocky Mountains No effect of severity Low regeneration rates across all severities, no consistent pattern
Harvey et al. 2013 Northern Rocky Mountains High Severity Crown and severe surface fire had a median density of 0 trees ha−1, while light surface fires had a median of 167 trees ha−1
Welch et al. 2016 Pacific Southwest High severity, intermediate severity Seedling density was lowest at high burn severity and highest at low-moderate and high-moderate severity