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Table 3 Significant (α = 0.05) orthogonal treatment contrasts for groundcover variables at the conclusion (2016) of oak woodland and savanna restoration experiments at Catoosa Wildlife Management Area (CWMA, Tennessee, USA), Green River Game Lands (GRGL, North Carolina, USA), and Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area (LBL, Tennessee, USA). Contrasts compared: unmanaged to thinned and burned stands (UN vs. TB); unmanaged to burned only stands (UN vs. BO); burned only to thinned and burned stands (BO vs. TB); woodland (14 m2 ha−1) to savanna (7 m2 ha−1) residual basal area (W vs. S); and fall (October) to spring (March) fire (Fa vs. Sp). BO treatments did not occur at CWMA, and Fa treatments did not occur at LBL. Richness and diversity (Shannon-Wiener Index) refer to the herbaceous community. Model df calculated using Kenward-Roger adjustment

From: Litter to glitter: promoting herbaceous groundcover and diversity in mid-southern USA oak forests using canopy disturbance and fire

Site Groundcover category Contrast F P Estimated cover (%) SE
CWMA Graminoid UN vs. TB 9.2 0.029 +28.6 9.4
W vs. S 13.9 0.014 +31.4 8.4
Forb UN vs. TB 17.1 0.009 +14.1 4.7
W vs. S 20.2 0.006 +16.2 4.2
Richness UN vs. TB 15.4 0.011 +8.9 2.3
W vs. S 19.2 0.007 +8.9 2.0
Diversity UN vs. TB 17.7 0.008 +1.6 0.4
W vs. S 8.8 0.032 +1.0 0.3
Woody UN vs. TB 118.6 <0.001 +48.2 4.4
W vs. S 6.7 0.049 +10.3 4.0
Litter UN vs. TB 455.7 <0.001 −48.9 2.3
W vs. S 24.8 0.004 −10.2 2.0
Debris W vs. S 18.8 0.008 −5.7 1.3
GRGL Graminoid UN vs. TB 23.0 <0.001 +24.7 5.2
Forb UN vs. TB 11.4 0.001 +10.8 3.6
BO vs. TB 14.5 <0.001 +10.3 3.5
Richness UN vs. TB 47.4 <0.001 +7.9 1.2
BO vs. TB 71.9 <0.001 +9.2 1.1
Diversity UN vs. TB 45.4 <0.001 +1.3 0.2
UN vs. BO 5.3 0.026 −0.5 0.2
BO vs. TB 100.1 <0.001 +1.8 0.2
Woody UN vs. TB 23.1 <0.001 +23.5 4.9
UN vs. BO 12.8 0.001 −21.3 5.9
BO vs. TB 90.3 <0.001 +44.8 4.7
Litter UN vs. TB 98.2 <0.001 −37.3 3.8
BO vs. TB 159.6 <0.001 −45.9 3.6
Bare UN vs. TB 10.6 0.002 +5.5 2.1
UN vs. BO 35.8 <0.001 +11.5 2.4
BO vs. TB 15.7 <0.001 −6.0 1.9
Fa vs. Sp 4.2 0.047 +2.4 1.9
LBL Graminoid UN vs. TB 14.4 0.005 +12.8 4.4
Forb UN vs. TB 6.7 0.033 +8.2 4.1
Richness UN vs. TB 8.0 0.022 +4.7 1.7
Diversity UN vs. TB 12.8 0.007 +1.1 0.3
UN vs. BO 5.8 0.043 +1.0 0.4
Woody UN vs. TB 11.0 0.011 +28.0 8.4
Litter UN vs. TB 39.6 <0.001 −47.5 7.6
UN vs. BO 9.3 0.021 −27.5 9.6
BO vs. TB 7.0 0.029 −20.0 7.6
Debris BO vs. TB 11.4 0.010 +3.6 1.4