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Table 3 Hazelnut stem gathering trips by tribal territory and fire type in Yurok, Karuk, and Hoopa territory, northwestern California, USA. Trips were observed or reported by basketweavers and stem gatherers from 2014 to 2019. According to Pearson’s χ2 test, trips to gathering sites in Karuk and Hupa territories were significantly more likely to occur at wildfire sites compared with trips in Yurok territory (χ2 = 41.03, df = 2, P < 0.0001)

From: Revitalized Karuk and Yurok cultural burning to enhance California hazelnut for basketweaving in northwestern California, USA

Fire type Gathering trips (n) per territory
Yurok Karuk Hupa
Cultural fire 69 6 3
Wildfire 0 7 3