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Table 1 Pre-fire tree species composition by tree size class within State Game Lands 176, Pennsylvania, USA, where we measured post-fire changes in forest structure and composition between 2009 and 2018

From: Prescribed fire alters structure and composition of a mid-Atlantic oak forest up to eight years after burning

   Pre-fire composition (% of total trees)
Seedlings Saplings Midstory Overstory
>5.08 cm tall, <2.54 cm DBH 2.54-10.15 cm DBH 10.16-19.99 cm DBH >19.99 cm DBH
Unburned (measured 2009)
 Bigtooth aspen Populus grandidentata Michx. - - 22.2 27.4
 Birch Betula spp. - - 1.9 -
 Black oak Quercus velutina Lam. 5.6 - - 8.3
 Cherry Prunus L. spp. - - 3.7 -
 Dogwood Cornus L. spp. - 4.2 - -
 Hickory Carya spp. 3.7 - 3.9 2.8
 Northern red oak Quercus rubra L. 5.7 - - 13.2
 Red maple Acer rubrum L. 73.7 70.8 50.9 11.5
 Sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees - - 4.2 2.8
 Serviceberry Amelanchier Medik. spp. 0.4 12.5 - -
 White oak Quercus alba L. 11.0 8.3 13.2 34.0
Mixed-oak (measured 2009)
 American chestnut Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. 0.1 - - -
 Bigtooth aspen Populus grandidentata 0.4 0.7 2.9 14.3
 Birch Betula spp. 0.4 - 0.7 0.5
 Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Marshall 0.3 0.7 - -
 Black oak Quercus velutina 3.9 4.9 2.0 10.7
 Cherry Prunus spp. 3.4 0.7 0.9 0.6
 Chestnut oak Quercus montana Willd. 11.5 6.5 4.4 11.9
 Dogwood Cornus spp. 0.1 - - -
 Eastern white pine Pinus strobus L. - - 0.9 -
 Hickory Carya spp. 2.9 0.4 23.9 5.6
 Northern red oak Quercus rubra 9.0 2.9 - 2.7
 Pitch pine Pinus rigida MIll. - - 0.3 0.9
 Red maple Acer rubrum 46.4 71.2 33.8 15.9
 Sassafras Sassafras albidum 14.0 3.1 21.8 2.4
 Scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Muenchh. 0.4 1.6 1.5 10.7
 Serviceberry Amelanchier spp. 0.1 - - -
 Striped maple Acer pensylvanicum L. 0.1 - - -
 Sugar maple Acer saccharum Marshall - - 0.6 -
 White oak Quercus alba 7.1 6.0 7.4 23.8
Aspen–oak (measured 2013)
 Bigtooth aspen Populus grandidentata - 4.8 12.4 37.2
 Black oak Quercus velutina 0.3 7.1 0.8 2.4
 Cherry Prunus spp. 22.4 26.6 54.1 26.3
 Dogwood Cornus spp. 1.4 1.3 - -
 Hawthorn Crataegus Tourn. ex L. spp. 0.2 - - -
 Hickory Carya spp. 0.6 1.8 - -
 Northern red oak Quercus rubra 1.0 0.4 - -
 Pitch pine Pinus rigida - - - 5.6
 Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Michx. - - 4.8 -
 Red maple Acer rubrum 70.7 18.3 7.8 -
 Scarlet oak Quercus coccinea 0.2 19.0 2.6 9.5
 Serviceberry Amelanchier spp. 1.6 - - -
 Spruce Picea Mill. spp. - 1.8 - -
 White oak Quercus alba 1.4 19.8 17.5 19.0