Point estimates (dots) and 95 % CIs (lines) on parameters from statistical models. Parameters describe effects of listed variables on A) probabilities that ponderosa pine boles were scorched, B) a visual bole scorch rating, and C) the maximum height of bole scorch. Vertical axes denote means for fall-burned, not-raked trees (i.e., baseline treatment), so CIs that do not overlap vertical axes are significantly different than the baseline (P < 0.025). In estimating effects of the variables on bole scorch rating and height, trees that did not experience bole scorch were excluded from the analysis. Fuel, DBH, and hill slope CIs indicate effects of elevating these variables 1.0 SD above their mean, so, for example, the fuel CI indicates that trees surrounded by greater than average fuel levels experienced slightly greater than average bole scorch height.