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Table 1 Summary of previous study findings related to cone calorimeter experiments on vegetation. pk[HRR] = peak heat release rate per unit area, HRR = heat release rate per unit area, EHC = effective heat of combustion, TTI = ignition time, MLR = mass loss rate, THR = total heat release, CO = carbon monoxide, CO2 = carbon dioxide, SEA = specific extinction area, RSR = rate of smoke release, TSR = total smoke release, SPR = smoke production rate.

From: Moisture Content, Ignitability, and Fire Risk of Vegetation in Vertical Greenery Systems

  Reference Study objective Specimen description Important parameters Study outcome
Ornamental plants Weise et al. 2005 Seasonal differences in combustion characteristics of plants Foliage and small branches of both green and oven dried specimens pk[HRR], HRR, EHC, TTI, MLR Relative ignitability of different species
White et al. 1997 Flammability of Christmas trees and other vegetation Fresh foliage pk[HRR], HRR, EHC, TTI, MLR With natural moisture, it is very difficult to sustain a flame
Wildland fires Liu et al. 2013 Combustibility of fresh leaves of forest species Fresh foliage TTI, HRR, pk[HRR], THR, [CO], [CO2], MLR, EHC, SEA, THR, RSR, TSR Recommended fire-resistant tree species
Fateh et al. 2016 Burning behavior and gaseous emissions of Mediterranean vegetation Pine needles Yields of gaseous emissions, MLR, TTI CO2 and water are the main emissions
White et al. 2002 Measured the relative flammability of different plant species Green and dried plant specimens HRR, pk[HRR], EHC Some species show higher flammability than others
Dibble et al. 2007 Combustion characteristics of northeastern USA vegetation Fresh specimens of foliage and twigs HRR, pk[HRR], THR, EHC Comparison of combustion properties among many species
Santoni et al. 2015 Scale effect of testing vegetation Pine needles HRR, SPR, [CO], [CO2], MLR, SEA, THR, RSR, TSR Limitations in extending bench scale tests to full scale