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Table 1 Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical satellite sensor characteristics and image dates used in this Minnesota, USA, study to quantify coniferous forest fuels using field data collected in 2015 and 2016. Images used to classify overstory canopy composition are in boldface. Sensors include the Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-1) aboard the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS); the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-1 C-band SAR sensor (interferometric wide swath mode; IW) and their Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) optical sensor; the Space Agency of France’s fifth Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT-5) multispectral (XS) optical sensor; and the US Geological Survey’s optical Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor aboard the Landsat-8 satellite. Polarization for SAR sensors includes horizontal send and receive (HH), vertical send and receive (VV), and two cross-polarizations (HV and VH). Dashes (–) denote multiple images from the same sensor

From: Modeling sub-boreal forest canopy bulk density in Minnesota, USA, using synthetic aperture radar and optical satellite sensor data

Satellite

Sensor

Bands

Wavelength

Polarization

Pixel size (m)

Date

ALOS

Palsar-1

2

23.6 cm (L-band)

HH, HV

12

6 Nov 2010

22 Dec 2010

Sentinel-1

IW

2

5.54 cm (C-band)

VV, VH

10

18 May 2016

4 Mar 2014

8 Jun 2014

Landsat-8

OLI

6

435 to 2294 nm

30

14 Oct 2014

19 Feb 2015

1 Dec 2015

Sentinel-2

MSI

6

444 to 2190 nm

10, 20

7 May 2017

SPOT-5

XS

4

500 to 1750 nm

10, 20

13 Mar 2013