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Table 3 Fixed effects in a generalized linear mixed model (PROC GENMOD) analysis of variance of the influence of nearby destroyed structures and pre-fire overstory canopy cover on Paradise single-family home loss in the Camp Fire, taking into account other potentially confounding variables. All variables plus their interactions with time period were put in the preliminary model with non-significant interactions and main effects sequentially dropped for the final model

From: Housing arrangement and vegetation factors associated with single-family home survival in the 2018 Camp Fire, California

Variable DF Chi-square P
Construction time period 2 68.84 <0.001
Dist. nearest destroyed structure 1 57.10 <0.001
Tot. structures destroyed 100 m 1 179.77 <0.001
Canopy cover_0–30 m 1 1.61 0.205
Canopy cover_30–100 m 1 162.48 <0.001
Wildland urban intermix/interface category 1 4.54 0.033
Dist. nearest destroyed structure × time 2 16.45 <0.001
Canopy cover_0–30 m × time 2 25.35 <0.001