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Table 1 Data used in meta-analysis of fungal species richness response to fire, including control replicates (n c), control mean (x c), experimental replicates (n e), experimental mean (x e), the natural log of the response ratio (ln[R]), and change in richness (%).

From: Fire Reduces Fungal Species Richness and In Situ Mycorrhizal Colonization: A Meta-Analysis

Reference Guild studieda Unit of measurementb Fire typec Repeat burn? Years since fire Biomed Location n c x c n e x e ln[R] Change in richness (%)
Barker et al. 2013 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   3 TF British Columbia, Canada 15 8 15 6.3 −0.2389 −21.3
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   3 TF British Columbia, Canada 15 8 15 4 −0.6932 −50.0
Bartoli et al. 1991 microfungi culture morphology W   0.01644 TF Italy 5 21.2 5 3.2 −1.8909 −84.9
Buscardo et al. 2010 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   5 TF Portugal 12 2.5 12 3.1 0.2119 23.6
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W 2 consecutive 5 TF Portugal 12 2.5 12 2.6 0.0276 2.8
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W 2 consecutive 5 TF Portugal 12 2.5 12 2.2 −0.1188 −11.2
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   5 TF Portugal 11 2.6 11 1.9 −0.3032 −26.2
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W 2 consecutive 5 TF Portugal 11 2.6 11 2 −0.2624 −23.1
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W 2 consecutive 5 TF Portugal 11 2.6 11 1.6 −0.4608 −36.9
Dahlberg et al. 2001 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID P   0.3 BF Sweden 5 1.4 5 0.9 −0.5272 −41.0
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID P   0.3 BF Sweden 5 2 5 0 NA NA
Eom et al. 1999 AM (spore) spore morphology P   1 TG Kansas, USA 4 5.3 4 3.8 −0.3365 −28.6
Glassman et al. 2015 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   1 TF California, USA 25 30.5 25 20 −0.4220 −34.4
Goberna et al. 2012 All fungi DGGE P   0.00274 TG Spain 10 23.53 10 26.55 0.1208 12.8
Grishkan 2016 microfungi culture morphology W   1.5 TF Israel 3 36 3 23 −0.4480 −36.1
microfungi culture morphology W   0.5 TF Israel 3 30 3 20 −0.4055 −33.3
Hernández-Rodríguez et al. 2013 All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TG Spain 6 22.1 6 6.1 −1.2827 −72.3
Holden et al. 2013 All fungi NGS W   0 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 121.2 −0.0090 −0.90
All fungi NGS W   6 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 142.1 0.1501 16.2
All fungi NGS W   11 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 134.4 0.0943 9.9
All fungi NGS W   23 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 117.6 −0.0392 −3.8
All fungi NGS W   54 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 108.2 −0.1225 −11.5
All fungi NGS W   90 BF Alaska, USA 2 122.3 2 99.8 −0.2033 −18.4
Jonsson et al. 1999 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   62 BF Sweden 2 22.5 2 20 −0.1178 −11.1
Junninen et al. 2008 WIF sporocarp survey P   1 BF Finland 3 18.42 3 18.68 0.0140 1.4
Kipfer et al. 2011 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   3.5 TF Switzerland 5 21.2 5 11.6 −0.6030 −45.3
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   15.5 TF Switzerland 7 21.2 7 19.5 −0.0836 −8.0
Kurth et al. 2013 WIF NGS W   4 TF Arizona, USA 6 3.5 6 1.8 −0.6621 −48.4
WIF NGS W   9 TF Arizona, USA 6 3.7 6 4.3 0.1526 16.5
WIF NGS W   13 TF Arizona, USA 6 4.8 6 4.5 −0.0728 −7.0
WIF NGS W   25 TF Arizona, USA 6 2.7 6 5.3 0.6782 97.0
WIF NGS W   32 TF Arizona, USA 6 3.8 6 3.8 0.0000 0.0
Longo et al. 2014 AM (spore) spore morphology W   0.5 TF Argentina 10 7.5 10 4.6 −0.4850 −38.4
AM (spore) spore morphology W   0.5 TF Argentina 10 7.7 10 4.1 −0.6477 −47.7
AM (spore) spore morphology W   0.5 TF Argentina 10 6.9 10 4.3 −0.4723 −37.7
AM (spore) spore morphology W   0.5 TF Argentina 10 8.4 10 4.9 −0.5371 −41.6
AM (spore) spore morphology W   0.5 TF Argentina 10 7.7 10 4.8 −0.4883 −38.6
Mardji 2014 ECM sporocarp survey W 2 consecutive 14 TrF India 4 8.75 4 3.25 −0.9904 −62.9
Martín-Pinto et al. 2006 All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TF Spain 3 22.1 3 8.8 −0.9257 −60.4
All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TF Spain 3 16.9 3 6.3 −0.9799 −62.5
All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TS Spain 3 26 3 11.7 −0.7978 −55.0
All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TS Spain 3 26.1 3 3.8 −1.9158 −85.3
Motiejūnaitė et al. 2014 All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TF Lithuania 3 71.2 3 23.9 −1.0930 −66.5
All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TF Lithuania 3 70.7 3 42.2 −0.5161 −40.3
Oliver et al. 2015 All fungi NGS P every 2 yr (winter) 3 TF Georgia, USA 4 668 4 656.5 −0.0174 −1.7
All fungi NGS P every 3 yr (winter) 3 TF Georgia, USA 4 668 4 680.5 0.0185 1.9
All fungi NGS P every 3 yr (summer) 7 TF Georgia, USA 4 668 4 659.75 −0.0124 −1.2
All fungi NGS P every 6 yr (summer) 10 TF Georgia, USA 4 668 4 687.5 0.0288 2.9
Olsson and Jonsson 2010 WIF sporocarp survey P   1 BF Sweden 150 2.0 150 1.2 −0.5008 −39.4
Rincón et al. 2014 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   14 TF Spain 3 11.9 3 10.0 −0.1796 −16.4
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   3 TF Spain 3 11.9 3 9.0 −0.2832 −24.7
Robinson et al. 2008 All fungi sporocarp survey W   1 TF Australia 4 39.41 4 27.94 −0.3440 −29.1
Román and Miguel 2005 ECM hyphal morphotype P   1 TF Spain 5 6 5 5.2 −0.1431 −13.3
Smith et al. 2004 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID P   1 TF Oregon, USA 4 10.3 4 10 −0.0247 −2.4
ECM morphotyping + molecular ID P   1 TF Oregon, USA 4 9.5 4 1.8 −1.6917 −81.6
Sun et al. 2015 All fungi NGS W   2 BF Finland 10 121.5 10 181.3 0.4002 49.2
All fungi NGS W   42 BF Finland 10 121.5 10 143.9 0.1692 18.4
All fungi NGS W   60 BF Finland 10 121.5 10 129 0.0599 6.2
All fungi NGS W   60 BF Finland 10 121.5 10 130.8 0.0738 7.7
Trappe et al. 2009 ECM sporocarp survey P   3 TF Oregon, USA 8 69 8 55 −0.2268 −20.3
ECM sporocarp survey P   3 TF Oregon, USA 4 69 4 81 0.1603 17.4
ECM sporocarp survey P   3 TF Oregon, USA 4 69 4 81 0.1603 17.4
Trusty 2009 ECM morphotyping + molecular ID W   5 TF Montana, USA 3 2.17 3 1.58 −0.3173 −27.2
Tuininga and Dighton 2004 ECM hyphal morphotype P every 4 yr 0.3 TF New Jersey, USA 3 9.4 3 9.1 −0.0389 −3.8
ECM hyphal morphotype P every 8 yr 0.3 TF New Jersey, USA 3 10.6 3 8.6 −0.2164 −19.5
Xiang et al. 2015 AM NGS W   1 BF China 6 74.34 6 8.68 −0.5919 −44.7
AM NGS W   1 BF China 6 74.34 6 12.84 −0.7641 −53.4
AM NGS W   11 BF China 6 74.34 6 15.09 −0.1392 −13.0
AM NGS W   11 BF China 6 74.34 6 15.85 −0.4945 −39.0
  1. a AM = arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; ECM = ectomycorrhizal fungi; WIF = wood-inhabiting fungi
  2. b NGS = next-generation sequencing; DGGE = denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
  3. c P = prescribed fire; W = wildfire
  4. d TF = temperate forest; BF = boreal forest; TG = temperate grassland; TS = temperate shrubland; TrF = tropical forest
  5. Fire-resistant propagules (e.g., spores, residual hyphae)