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Table 2 Data used in meta-analysis of mycorrhizal colonization response to fire including control replicates (n c), control mean (x c), experimental replicates (n e), experimental mean (x e), the natural log of the response ratio (ln[R]), and change in colonization (%).

From: Fire Reduces Fungal Species Richness and In Situ Mycorrhizal Colonization: A Meta-Analysis

Reference Guild studieda Unit of measurement in situ or ex situ Fire typeb Repeat burn? Years since fire Biomec Location n c x c n e x e ln[R] Change in colonization (%)
Anderson and Menges 1997 AM % colonized seedlings ex situ P   0.083 TF Florida, USA 10 2.2 10 3.8 0.5465 72.7
Bacon et al. 2009 AM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   33.000 TF Arizona, USA 12 20 12 41 0.7178 105
AM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   5.000 TF Arizona, USA 12 7.5 12 16 0.7577 113.3
ECM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   33.000 TF Arizona, USA 12 60 12 75 0.2231 25
ECM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   5.000 TF Arizona, USA 12 71 12 70 −0.0142 −1.4
Barker et al. 2013 ECM % colonized seedlings in situ W   0.330 TF British Columbia, Canada 18 44.9 18 22.9 −0.6742 −49.0
ECM % colonized seedlings in situ P   0.330 TF British Columbia, Canada 18 44.9 18 26.6 −0.5238 −40.8
Bellgard et al. 1994 AM % root length ex situ W   0.083 TG Australia 10 35.9 10 35 −0.0246 −2.4
Bentivenga and Hetrick 1991 AM % root length in situ P   0.011 TG Kansas, USA 4 13.3 4 11.6 −0.1382 −12.9
Buscardo et al. 2010 ECM % root tips ex situ W   5.000 TF Portugal 12 55 12 59.1 0.0719 7.5
ECM % root tips ex situ W 2 consecutive 5.000 TF Portugal 12 55 12 60 0.0870 9.1
ECM % root tips ex situ W 2 consecutive 5.000 TF Portugal 12 55 12 64.2 0.1547 16.7
ECM % root tips ex situ W   5.000 TF Portugal 11 42.5 11 38.1 −0.1093 −10.4
ECM % root tips ex situ W 2 consecutive 5.000 TF Portugal 11 42.5 11 59.1 0.3297 39.1
ECM % root tips ex situ W 2 consecutive 5.000 TF Portugal 11 42.5 11 25.5 −0.5108 −40.0
Dhillion et al. 1988 AM % root length in situ P repeat unspecified 0.133 TG Illinois, USA 10 75 10 39 −0.6539 −48.0
Glassman et al. 2015 ECM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   1.000 TF California, USA 26 100 22 85 −0.1625 −15.0
Hartnett et al. 1994 AM % root length in situ P   0.250 TG Kansas, USA 20 12.5 20 15 0.1823 20.0
Medve 1985 AM % root tips in situ P   0.330 TG Pennsylvania, USA 10 70.2 10 69.9 −0.0043 −0.4
Miller et al. 1998 ECM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   1.000 TF Wyoming, USA 3 38.2 3 62 0.4843 62.3
ECM % colonized seedlings ex situ W   1.000 TF Wyoming, USA 3 28.9 3 55.4 0.6507 91.7
Milne 2002 ECM % root tips ex situ W   0.250 TF Greece 3 29.24 3 16.59 −0.5667 −43.3
Raman and Nagarajan 1996 AM % root tips in situ P   0.055 TrF India 12 53.83 12 35.92 −0.4045 −33.3
Rashid et al. 1997 AM % root length in situ W   0.417 TG Pakistan 10 57 10 23 −0.9076 −59.7
AM % root length in situ W   0.417 TG Pakistan 10 43 10 20.7 −0.7311 −51.9
Rincón et al. 2014 ECM % root tips in situ W   14.00 TF Spain 3 70 3 81.5 0.1526 16.5
ECM % root tips in situ W   3.000 TF Spain 4 70 4 61.0 −0.1383 −12.9
Román and Miguel 2005 ECM % root length in situ P   1.000 TF Spain 5 26.2 5 18 −0.3754 −31.3
Schoenberger and Perry 1982 ECM % root tips ex situ W   38.000 TF Oregon, USA 4 74.6 4 57.8 −0.2552 −22.5
ECM % root tips ex situ W   38.000 TF Oregon, USA 4 74.4 4 79.5 0.0663 6.9
Senthilkumar et al. 1995 AM % root tips in situ P   0.083 TrG India 4 51.25 4 45 −0.1301 −12.2
Tipton 2016 AM % root length in situ P   1.000 TG Missouri, USA 4 33 5 59 0.5810 78.8
AM % root length in situ P   2.000 TG Missouri, USA 4 33 2 60 0.5978 81.8
AM % root length in situ P   4.000 TG Missouri, USA 4 33 3 59 0.5810 78.8
AM % root length in situ P   5.000 TG Missouri, USA 4 33 2 18 −0.6061 −45.5
Torres and Honrubia 1997 ECM % root tips ex situ W   1.000 TF Spain 10 91.1 10 97.1 0.0641 6.6
ECM % root tips ex situ W   1.000 TF Spain 10 91.1 10 75.6 −0.1871 −17.1
Treseder et al. 2004 ECM % root length in situ W   3.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 28.5 10 6.2 −1.5216 −78.2
ECM % root length in situ W   35.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 28.5 10 49.2 0.5449 72.5
ECM % root length in situ W   46.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 28.5 10 39.0 0.3131 36.8
AM % root length in situ W   3.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 30 10 33.2 0.1026 10.8
AM % root length in situ W   35.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 30 10 32.1 0.0664 6.9
AM % root length in situ W   46.000 BF Alaska, USA 10 30 10 35.3 0.1624 17.6
Trusty 2009 ECM % colonized seedlings in situ W   5.000 TF Montana, USA 3 99.6 3 90.8 −0.0925 −8.8
Vásquez-Gassibe et al. 2016 ECM % root tips ex situ W   1.000 TF Spain 5 42.53 5 40 −0.0613 −5.9
ECM % root tips ex situ W   1.000 TF Spain 5 42.53 5 39.82 −0.0891 −8.5
Vilariño and Arines 1991 AM % root length in situ W   1.000 TF Spain 3 51 3 23 −0.7963 −54.9
AM % root length in situ W   1.000 TF Spain 3 51 3 33 −0.4353 −35.3
AM % root length in situ W   1.000 TF Spain 3 51 3 37 −0.3209 −27.5
AM % root length in situ W   1.000 TF Spain 3 51 3 21 −0.8873 −58.8
AM % root length in situ W   1.000 TF Spain 3 51 3 36 −0.3483 −29.4
  1. a AM = arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; ECM = ectomycorrhizal fungi
  2. b P = prescribed fire; W = wildfire
  3. c TF = temperate forest; BF = boreal forest; TrF = tropical forest; TrG = tropical grassland; TG = temperate grassland; TS = temperate shrubland