Ayers, H.B., and W.W. Ashe. 1905. The southern Appalachian forests. In US Geological Survey professional paper 37. Washington, D.C.: US Geological Survey. https://doi.org/10.3133/pp37.
Azeria, E.T., M. Bouchard, D. Pothier, D. Fortin, and C. Hebert. 2011. Using biodiversity deconstruction to disentangle assembly and diversity dynamics of understorey plants along post-fire succession in boreal forest. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20: 119–133. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00580.x.
Blankenship, B.A., and M.A. Arthur. 2006. Stand structure over 9 years in burned and fire-excluded oak stands on the Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky. Forest Ecology and Management 225: 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.032.
Boring, L.R., and W.T. Swank. 1984. The role of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) in forest succession. Journal of Ecology 72: 749–766. https://doi.org/10.2307/2259529.
Brose, P.H., T. Schuler, D. Van Lear, and J. Berst. 2001. Bringing fire back: the changing regimes of the Appalachian mixed-oak forests. Journal of Forestry 99: 30–35.
Brose, P.H., and D.H. Van Lear. 1998. Responses of hardwood advance regeneration to seasonal prescribed fires in oak-dominated shelterwood stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28 (3): 331–339. https://doi.org/10.1139/x97-218.
Burton, J.A., S.W. Hallgren, S.D. Fuhlendorf, and D.M. Leslie Jr. 2011. Understory response to varying fire frequencies after 20 years of prescribed burning in an upland oak forest. Plant Ecology 212 (9): 1513–1525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-011-9926-y.
Certini, G. 2005. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-004-1788-8.
Chapman, G.L. 1950. The influence of mountain laurel undergrowth on environmental conditions and oak reproduction. Dissertation. New Haven: Yale University.
Christensen, N.L. 1993. The effects of fuel on nutrient cycles in longleaf pine ecosystems. In Proceedings of the 18th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, ed. S.M. Hermann, 205–214. Tallahassee: Tall Timbers Research Station.
Clarke, K.R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Australian Journal of Ecology 18:117–117.
Clinton, B.D., and J.M. Vose. 2000. Plant succession and community restoration following felling and burning in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In Fire and forest ecology: innovative silviculture and vegetation management, Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings No. 21, ed. W. Keith Moser and Cynthia F. Moser, 22–29. Tallahassee: Tall Timbers Research Station.
Costanza, J.K., J.W. Coulston, and D.N. Wear. 2017. An empirical, hierarchical typology of tree species assemblages for assessing forest dynamics under global change scenarios. PLoS ONE 12 (9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184062.
De Cáceres, M., and P. Legendre. 2009. Associations between species and groups of sites: indices and statistical inference. Ecology 90 (12): 3566–3574. https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1823.1.
Dey, D.C., and G. Hartman. 2005. Returning fire to Ozark Highland forest ecosystems: effects on advance regeneration. Forest Ecology and Management 217: 37–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.05.002.
Dolan, M.M., and A.J. Parker. 2004. Evergreen understory dynamics in Coweeta Forest, North Carolina. Physical Geography 6: 481–498. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-36184.108.40.2061.
Dufrêne, M., and P. Legendre. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67: 345–366. https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0345:SAAIST]2.0.CO;2.
Elliott, K.J., R.L. Hendrick, A.E. Major, J.M. Vose, and W.T. Swank. 1999. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management 114: 199–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00351-X.
Elliott, K.J., and J.M. Vose. 2005. Effects of understory prescribed burning on shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.)/mixed-hardwood forests. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132 (2): 236–251. https://doi.org/10.3159/1095-5674(2005)132[236:EOUPBO]2.0.CO;2.
Faith, D.P., P.R. Minchin, and L. Belbin. 1987. Compositional dissimilarity as a robust measure of ecological distance. Vegetatio 69: 57–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00038687.
Garren, K.H. 1943. Effects of fire on vegetation of the southeastern United States. Botanical Review 9 (9): 617–654. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02872506.
Gilliam, F.S., and M.R. Roberts. 2003. The dynamic nature of the herbaceous layer: synthesis and future directions for research. In The herbaceous layer in forests of eastern North America, ed. F.S. Gilliam and M.R. Roberts, 323–337. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gonzalez-Tagle, M.A., L. Schwendenmann, J.J. Perez, and R. Schulz. 2008. Forest structure and woody plant species composition along a fire chronosequence in mixed pine-oak forest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, northeast Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.04.021.
Greenberg, C.H., B.S. Collins, W.H. McNab, D.K. Miller, and G.R. Wein. 2016. Introduction to natural disturbances and historic range of variation: type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in Central hardwood forests. In Natural disturbances and historic range of variation. Managing forest ecosystems, ed. C.H. Greenberg and B.S. Collins, vol. 32, 1–32. Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21527-3_1.
Holzmueller, E.J., J.W. Groninger, and C.M. Ruffner. 2014. Facilitating oak and hickory regeneration in mature Central hardwood forests. Forests. 5: 3344–3351. https://doi.org/10.3390/f5123344.
Horn, H.S. 1974. The ecology of secondary succession. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 5: 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.05.110174.000325.
Huddle, J., and S.G. Pallardy. 1999. Effect of fire on survival and growth of Acer rubrum and Quercus seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 118 (1): 49–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00485-X.
Hutchinson, T.F., R.E.J. Boerner, L.R. Iverson, S. Sutherland, and E.K. Sutherland. 1999. Landscape patterns of understory composition and richness across a moisture and nitrogen mineralization gradient in Ohio (USA) Quercus forests. Plant Ecology 144: 179–189. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009804020976.
Hutchinson, T.F., R.E.J. Boerner, S. Sutherland, E.K. Sutherland, M. Ortt, and L.R. Iverson. 2005. Prescribed fire effects on the herbaceous layer of mixed-oak forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources 35: 877–890. https://doi.org/10.1139/x04-189.
Iverson, L.R., T.F. Hutchinson, A.M. Prasad, and M.P. Peters. 2008. Thinning, fire, and oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in the eastern US: 7-year results. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 3035–3050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.088.
Kane, J.M., J.M. Varner, E.E. Knapp, and R.F. Powers. 2010. Understory vegetation response to mechanical mastication and other fuels treatments in a ponderosa pine forest. Applied Vegetation Science 12 (2): 207–220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01062.x.
Keyser, M.J., P.J. Gould, M.E. McDill, K.C. Steiner, and J.C. Finley. 2008. Classifying patterns of understory vegetation in mixed-oak forests in two ecoregions of Pennsylvania. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25 (1): 38–44. https://doi.org/10.1093/njaf/25.1.38.
Kruskal, J.B. 1964a. Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis. Psychometrika 29: 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289565.
Kruskal, J.B. 1964b. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika 29: 115–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289694.
Kuddes-Fischer, L.M., and M.A. Arthur. 2002. Response of understory vegetation and tree regeneration to a single prescribed fire in oak-pine forests. Natural Areas Journal 22 (1): 43–52.
Lafon, C.W., A.T. Naito, H.D. Grissino-Mayer, S.P. Horn, and T.A. Waldrop. 2017. Fire history of the Appalachian region: a review and synthesis. In USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SRS-219, Southern Research Station, Asheville, North Carolina, USA.
Maechler, M., P. Rousseeuw, A. Struyf, M. Hubert, and K. Hornik. 2015. cluster: Cluster Analysis Basics and Extensions. R package version 2.0.3.
McCune, B., and J.B. Grace. 2002. Analysis of ecological communities. Gleneden Beach: MjM Software Design.
McCune, B., R. Rosentreter, J.M. Ponzetti, and D.C. Shaw. 2000. Epiphyte habitats in an old conifer forest in western Washington, USA. The Bryologist 103 (3): 417–427. https://doi.org/10.1639/0007-2745(2000)103[0417:EHIAOC]2.0.CO;2.
Monk, C.D., D.T. McGinty, and F.P. Day. 1985. The ecological importance of Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron maximum in the deciduous forest of the Southern Appalachians. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 112: 187–193. https://doi.org/10.2307/2996415.
Moser, W.K., M.J. Ducey, and P.M.S. Ashton. 1996. Effects of fire intensity on competitive dynamics between red and black oaks and mountain laurel. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 13 (3): 119–123. https://doi.org/10.1093/njaf/13.3.119.
NatureServe. 2020. NatureServe Explorer. Arlington: NatureServe https://explorer.natureserve.org/ Accessed 21 Oct 2020.
Nowacki, G.J., and M.D. Abrams. 2008. The demise of fire and mesophication of forests in the eastern United States. Bioscience 58 (2): 123–138. https://doi.org/10.1641/B580207.
Oakman, E.C., D.L. Hagan, T.A. Waldrop, and K. Barrett. 2019. Understory vegetation responses to 15 years of repeated fuel reduction treatments in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forests 10 (14): 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040350.
Oksanen, J., F. Guillaume Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P.R. Minchin, R.B. O’Hara, G.L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M.H.H. Stevens, E. Szoecs, and H. Wagner. 2015. Vegan: the community ecology package, v. 1.8-4.
Pavlovic, N.B., S.A. Leicht-Young, and R. Grundel. 2011. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants. Plant Ecology 212: 611–625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-010-9851-5.
Peterson, D.W., P.B. Reich, and K.J. Wrage. 2007. Plant functional group responses to fire frequency and tree canopy cover gradients in oak savannas and woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science 18 (1): 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02510.x.
Phillips, R., T. Hutchinson, L. Brudnak, and T. Waldrop. 2007. Fire and fire surrogate treatments in mixed-oak forests: effects on herbaceous layer vegetation. In The fire environment—innovations, management, and policy; conference proceedings, Proceedings RMRS-P-46, ed. B.W. Butler and W. Cook. Fort Collins: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Pickett, S.T.A., J. Wu, and M.L. Cadenasso. 1999. Patch dynamics and the ecology of disturbed ground: a framework for synthesis. In Ecosystems of disturbed ground, ed. L.R. Walker, 707–722. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Pyne, S.J. 1997. Fire in America: a cultural history of wildland and rural fire. 2nd ed. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
R Core Team. 2016. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
Roberts, M.R. 2004. Response of herbaceous layer to natural disturbance in North American forests. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1273–1283. https://doi.org/10.1139/b04-091.
Schwilk, D.W., J.E. Keeley, E.E. Knapp, J. McIver, J.D. Bailey, C.J. Fettig, C.E. Fiedler, R.J. Harrod, J.J. Moghaddas, K.W. Outcalt, C.N. Skinner, S.L. Stephens, T.A. Waldrop, D.A. Yaussy, and A. Youngblood. 2009. The national fire and fire surrogate study: effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels. Ecological Applications 19: 285–304. https://doi.org/10.1890/07-1747.1.
Shearman, T.M., G.G. Wang, R.K. Peet, T.R. Wentworth, M.P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. 2017. A community analysis for forest ecosystems with natural growth of Persea spp. in the southeastern United States. Castanea 83 (1): 3–27. https://doi.org/10.2179/17-131.
Small, C.J., and B.C. McCarthy. 2002. Spatial and temporal variation in the response of understory vegetation to disturbance in a central Appalachian oak forest. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 129: 136–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/3088727.
Stanturf, J.A., D.D. Wade, T.A. Waldrop, D.K. Kennard, and G.L. Achtemeier. 2002. Fire in Southern forest landscapes. In Southern forest resource assessment. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SRS-53, ed. D.M. Wear and J. Greis, 607–630. Asheville: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Stephens, S.L., J.D. McIver, R.E.J. Boerner, C.J. Fettig, J.B. Fontaine, B.R. Hartsough, P.L. Kennedy, and D.W. Schwilk. 2012. The effects of forest fuel reduction treatments in the United States. Bioscience 62: 549–560. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.6.
Taylor, A.H. 2007. Forest changes since Euro-American settlement and ecosystem restoration in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA. In Restoring fire-adapted ecosystems: proceedings of the 2005 national silviculture workshop, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-203, ed. R.F. Powers, 3–20. Albany: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.
Van Lear, D.H., P.H. Brose, and P.D. Keyser. 2000. Using prescribed fire to regenerate oaks. In Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape; 12-14 March 2000; Richmond, Kentucky, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-274, ed. D.A. Yaussy, 97–102. Newtown Square: USDA Forest Service. https://doi.org/10.2737/NE-GTR-274.
Van Lear, D.H., and T.A. Waldrop. 1989. History, use, and effects of fire in the Appalachians. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report SE-54. Asheville: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/SE-GTR-54.
Vose, J.M., B.D. Clinton, and W.T. Swank. 1993. Fire, drought, and forest management influences on pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians. In A paper presented at the 12th Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, 26 to 28 October 1993, at Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA. Miscellaneous publication 4726. Asheville: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/4726.
Waldrop, T.A., D. Hagan, and D.M. Simon. 2016. Repeated application of fuel reduction techniques in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA: implications for achieving management goals. Fire Ecology 12 (2): 28–47. https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.1202028.
Waldrop, T.A., H.H. Mohr, R.J. Phillips, and D.M. Simon. 2014. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study: vegetation changes over 11 years of fuel reduction treatments in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. In Proceedings—wildland fire in the Appalachians: discussions among managers and scientists, General Technical Report SRS-199, ed. T.A. Waldrop, 34–41. Asheville: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Waldrop, T.A., D.A. Yaussy, R.J. Phillips, T.F. Hutchinson, L. Brudnak, and R.E.J. Boerner. 2008. Fuel reduction treatments affect stand structure of hardwood forests in western North Carolina and southern Ohio, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 255: 3117–3129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.11.010.
Web Soil Survey. 2020. Web Soil Survey home page. http://websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/. Accessed 21 Oct 2020.
Willig, M.R., and L.R. Walker. 1999. Disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems: salient themes, synthesis, and future directions. In Ecosystems of disturbed ground, volume 16, chapter 33, ed. L.R. Walker, 747–767. Amsterdam: Elsevier.