Abella, S.R., and P. J. Fornwalt. 2015. Ten years of vegetation assembly after a North American mega fire. Global Change Biology 21: 789–802. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12722
Agee, J.K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
Beschta, R.L., J.J. Rhodes, J.B. Kauffman, R.E. Gresswell, G.W. Minshall, J.R. Karr, D.A. Perry, F.R. Hauer, and C.A. Frissell. 2004. Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conservation Biology 18: 957–967. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00495.x
Beyers, J. 2004. Postfire seeding for erosion control: effectiveness and impacts on native plant communities. Conservation Biology 18: 947–956. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00523.x
Bond, W.J., and B.W. van Wilgen. 1996. Fire and plants. Chapman and Hall, London, England, United Kingdom. doi: 10.1007/978-94-009-1499-5
Bonham, C.D. 1989. Measurements for terrestrial vegetation. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.
Box, G.E.P., and D.R. Cox. 1964. An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 26: 211–252.
Brown, J.K., E.D. Reinhardt, and K.A. Kramer. 2003. Coarse woody debris: managing benefits and fire hazard in the recovering forest. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-105, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, USA.
Brown, J.K., and J.K. Smith. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-Volume 2, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, USA.
Chapin, F.S., III, K. Autumn, and F. Pugnaire. 1993. Evolution of suites of traits in response to environmental stress. American Naturalist 142: 78–92. doi: 10.1086/285524
Chapin, F.S., III, M.S. Bret-Harte, S.E. Hobbie, and H. Zhong. 1996. Plant functional types as predictors of transient responses of Arctic vegetation to global change. Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 347–358. doi: 10.2307/3236278
Clark, J.T., and T. Bobbe. 2006. Using remote sensing to map and monitor fire damage in forest ecosystems. Pages 113–131 in: M.A. Wulder and S.E. Franklin, editors. Understanding forest disturbance and spatial patterns: remote sensing and GIS approaches. Taylor and Francis, Florence, Kentucky, USA.
Cornelissen, J.H.C., S. Lavorel, E. Garnier, S. Diaz, N. Buchmann, D.E. Gurvich, P.B. Reich, H. ter Steege, H.D. Morgan, M.G.A. van der Heijden, J.G. Pausas, and H. Poorter. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 335–380. doi: 10.1071/BT02124
Denslow, J.S. 1980. Patterns of plant species diversity during succession under different disturbance regimes. Oecologia 46: 18–21. doi: 10.1007/BF00346960
Dillon, G.K., Z.A. Holden, P. Morgan, M.A. Crimmins, E.K. Heyerdahl, and C.H. Luce. 2011. Both topography and climate affected forest and woodland burn severity in two regions of the western US, 1984 to 2006. Ecosphere 2(12): 130. doi: 10.1890/ES11-00271.1
Donato, D.C., J.B. Fontaine, J.L. Campbell, W.D. Robinson, J.B. Kauffman, and B.E. Law. 2006. Post-wildfire logging hinders regeneration and increases fire risk. Science 311: 352. doi: 10.1126/science.1122855
Droske, C.A. 2012. Conifer seedling density and growth following post-fire salvage logging and grass seeding on the 2005 School Fire, Washington, USA. Thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow, USA.
FEIS [Fire Effects Information System]. 2010. USDA Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, Montana, USA. <http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis>. Accessed 8 May 2010.
Flinn, M.A., and J.K. Pringle. 1983. Heat tolerance of rhizomes of several understory species. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 452–457. doi: 10.1139/b83-052
Flinn, M.A., and R.W. Wein. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 2550–2554. doi: 10.1139/b77-291
Floyd, L.M., D. Hanna, W.H. Romme, and T.E. Crews. 2006. Predicting and mitigating weed invasions to restore natural post-fire succession in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 247–259. doi: 10.1071/WF05066
Franklin, J.F., and J.K. Agee. 2003. Forging a science-based national forest fire policy. Issues in Science and Technology 20: 59–66.
Graham, R.T., A.E. Harvey, T.B. Jain, and J.R. Tonn. 1999. Effects of thinning and similar stand treatments on fire behavior in western forests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-463, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Graham, R.T., S. McCaffrey, and T.B. Jain. 2004. Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-120, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, USA.
Gray, A.N., and T.A. Spies. 1997. Microsite controls on tree seedling establishment in conifer forest canopy gaps. Ecology 78: 2458–2473. doi: 10.1890/0012-9658(1997)078[2458:MCOTSE]2.0.CO;2
Halpern, C.B. 1988. Early successional pathways and the resistance and resilience of forest communities. Ecology 69: 1703–1715. doi: 10.2307/1941148
Hooper, D.U, and P.M. Vitousek. 1998. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science 277: 1302–1305. doi: 10.1126/science.277.5330.1302
Hudak, A.T., P. Morgan, M.J. Bobbitt, A.M.S. Smith, S.A. Lewis, L.B. Lentile, P.R. Robichaud, J.T. Clark, and R.A. McKinley. 2007. The relationship of multispectral satellite imagery to immediate fire effects. Fire Ecology 3(1): 64–90. doi: 10.4996/fireecology.0301064
Hudak, A.T., I. Rickert, P. Morgan, E. Strand, S.A. Lewis, P.R. Robichaud, C. Hoffman, and Z.A. Holden. 2011. Review of fuel treatment effectiveness in forests and rangelands and a case study from the 2007 megafires in central Idaho, USA. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-252, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Hunter, M.E., and P.N. Omi. 2006. Response of native and exotic grasses to increased soil nitrogen and recovery in a postfire environment. Restoration Ecology 14: 587–594. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00170.x
Hunter, M.E., P.N. Omi, E.J. Martinson, and G.W. Chong. 2006. Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 271–281. doi: 10.1071/WF05074
Hutto, R.L. 2006. Towards meaningful snag management retention guidelines for post-fire salvage logging in North American conifer forests. Conservation Biology 20: 984–993. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00494.x
Johnson, C.G., Jr. 1998. Common plants of the inland Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-04, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Johnson, C.G., Jr., and R.R. Clausnitzer. 1991. Plant associations of the Blue and Ochoco mountains. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report R6-ERW-TP-036-92, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Karr, J.R., J.J. Rhodes, G.W. Minshall, F.R. Hauer, R.L Beschta, C.A. Frissell, and D.A. Perry. 2004. The effects of postfire salvage logging on aquatic ecosystems in the American West. BioScience 54: 1029–1033. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[1029:TEOPSL]2.0.CO;2
Keeley, J.E. 2009. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 116–126. doi: 10.1071/WF07049
Kershaw, L., A. MacKinnon, and J. Pojar. 1998. Plants of the Rocky Mountains. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Keyser, T.L., F.W. Smith, and W.D. Shepperd. 2009. Short-term impact of post-fire salvage logging on regeneration, hazardous fuel accumulation, and understory development in ponderosa pine forests of the Black Hills, SD, USA. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 451–458. doi: 10.1071/WF08004
Klock, G.O. 1975. Impact of five post-fire salvage logging systems on soils and vegetation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 30: 78–81.
Lentile L.B., Z.A. Holden, A.M.S. Smith, M.J. Falkowski, A.T. Hudak, P. Morgan, S.A. Lewis, P.E. Gessler, and N.C. Benson. 2006. Remote sensing techniques to assess fire characteristics and post-fire effects. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15: 319–345. doi: 10.1071/WF05097
Lentile, L.B, P. Morgan, A.T. Hudak, M.J. Bobbitt, S.A. Lewis, A.M.S. Smith, and P.R. Robichaud. 2007. Burn severity and vegetation response following eight large wildfires across the western US. Fire Ecology 3(1): 91–108. doi: 10.4996/fireecology.0301091
Lewis, S.A., P.R. Robichaud, A.T. Hudak, B. Austin, and R.J. Liebermann. 2012. Utility of remotely sensed imagery for assessing the impact of salvage logging after forest fires. Remote Sensing 4: 2112–2132. doi: 10.3390/rs4072112
Lindenmayer, D. 2006. Salvage harvesting—past lessons and future issues. Forest Chronicle 82: 48–53. doi: 10.5558/tfc82048-1
Lindenmayer, D.B., and R.F. Noss. 2006. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 20: 949–958. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00497.x
Littell, J.S., D. McKenzie, D.L. Peterson, and A.L. Westerling. 2009. Climate and wildfire area burned in western US ecoprovinces, 1916–2003. Ecological Applications 19: 1003–1021. doi: 10.1890/07-1183.1
Macdonald, S.E. 2007. Effects of partial postfire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 239: 21–31. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.11.006
Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA. doi: 10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0
McLean, A. 1969. Fire resistance of forest species as influenced by root systems. Journal of Range Management 22: 120–122. doi: 10.2307/3896195
McIver, J.D., and L. Starr. 2001. A literature review on the environmental effects of postfire logging. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 16: 159–168.
McIver, J.D., and R. Ottmar. 2007. Fuel mass and stand structure after post-fire logging of a severely burned ponderosa pine forest in northeastern Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management 238: 268–279. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.10.021
Morgan, P., and L.F. Neuenschwander. 1988. Shrub response to high and low severity burns following clearcutting in northern Idaho. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 3: 5–9.
Morgan, P., R.E. Keane, G.K. Dillon, T.B. Jain, A.T. Hudak, E.C. Karau, P.G. Sikkink, Z.A. Holden, and E.K. Strand. 2014. Challenges of assessing fire and burn severity using field measures, remote sensing and modeling. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23: 1045–1060. doi: 10.1071/WF13058
Parsons, A., P.R. Robichaud, S.A. Lewis, C. Napper, and J.T. Clark. 2010. Field guide for mapping post-fire soil burn severity. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-243, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Peppin, D., P.Z. Fulé, C.H. Sieg, J.L. Beyers, and M. Hunter. 2010. Post-wildfire seeding in forests of the western United States: an evidence-based review. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 573–586. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.004
Peppin, D.L., P.Z. Fulé, C.H. Sieg, J.L. Beyers, M.E. Hunter, and P.R. Robichaud. 2011. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20: 702–708. doi: 10.1071/WF10044
Peterson, D.L., J.K. Agee, G.H. Aplet, D.P. Dykstra, R.T. Graham, J.F. Lehmkuhl, D.S. Pilliod, D.F. Potts, R.F. Powers, and J.D. Stuart. 2009. Effects of timber harvest following wildfire in western North America. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-776, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, USA.
Pinheiro, J.C., and D.M. Bates. 2000. Mixed-effects and models and S and S-Plus. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0318-1
Ricklefs, R.E. 1977. Environmental heterogeneity and plant species diversity: a hypothesis. American Naturalist 111: 376–381. doi: 10.1086/283169
Robichaud P.R., J.L. Beyers, and D.G. Neary. 2000. Evaluating the effectiveness of postfire rehabilitation treatments. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-63, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Robichaud, P.R., L.E. Ashmun, and B.D. Sims. 2010. Post-fire treatment effectiveness for hillslope stabilization. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-240, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Robichaud, P.R., S.A. Lewis, J.W. Wagenbrenner, L.E. Ashmun, and R.E. Brown. 2013. Postfire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation. Part I: effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates. Catena 105: 75–92. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2012.11.015
Robichaud, P.R., H. Rhee, and S.A. Lewis. 2014. A synthesis of post-fire Burned Area Reports from 1972 to 2009 for western US Forest Service lands: trends in wildfire characteristics and post-fire stabilization treatments and expenditures. International Journal of Wildland Fire 23: 929–944. doi: 10.1071/WF13192
SAS Institute. 2001. SAS user’s guide: statistics. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Schoennagel, T.L., and D.M. Waller. 1999. Understory responses to fire and artificial seeding in an eastern Cascades Abies grandis forest, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 1390–1401. doi: 10.1139/x99-120
Sessions, J., P. Bettinger, R. Buckman, M. Newton, and J. Hamann. 2004. Hastening the return of complex forests following fire: the consequences of delay. Journal of Forestry 102: 38–45.
Sexton, T.O. 1998. Ecological effects of post-wildfire management activities (salvage-logging and grass-seeding) on vegetation composition, diversity, biomass, and growth and survival of Pinus ponderosa and Purshia tridentata. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, USA.
Spracklen, D.V., L.J. Mickley, J.A. Logan, R.C. Hudman, R. Yevich, M.D. Flannigan, and A.L. Westerling. 2009. Impacts of climate change from 2000 to 2050 on wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in the western United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 14: 114. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010966
Stage, A.R. 1976. Notes: an expression for the effect of aspect, slope, and habitat type on tree growth. Forest Science 22: 457–460.
Stella, K.A., C.H. Sieg, and P.Z. Fulé. 2010. Minimal effectiveness of native and non-native seeding following three high-severity wildfires. International Journal of Wildland Fire 19: 746–758. doi: 10.1071/WF09094
Stickney, P.F., and R.B. Campbell Jr. 2000. Database for early post-fire succession in northern Rocky Mountain forests. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-61CD, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, Utah, USA.
Taskey, R.D., C.L. Curtis, and J. Stone. 1989. Wildfire, ryegrass seeding, and watershed rehabilitation. Pages 115–123 in: N.H. Berg, technical coordinator. Proceedings of the Symposium on Fire and Watershed Management, Sacramento, California. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-109, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, California, USA.
Taylor, R.J., and G.W. Douglas. 1995. Mountain plants of the Pacific Northwest. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, USA.
Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, and R.H. Gardner. 1999. Prefire heterogeneity, fire severity and plant reestablishment in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. International Journal of Wildland Fire 9: 21–36. doi: 10.1071/WF99003
Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, R.H. Gardner, and W.W. Hargrove. 1997. Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park. Ecological Monographs 67: 411–33. doi: 10.1890/0012-9615(1997)067[0411:EOFSAP]2.0.CO;2
Turner, M.G., W.H. Romme, and D.B. Tinker. 2003. Surprises and lessons from the 1988 Yellowstone fires. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 351–358. doi: 10.1890/1540-9295(2003)001[0351:SALFTY]2.0.CO;2
USDA [US Department of Agriculture]. 2014. The plants database. <http://plants.usda.gov>. Accessed 7 July 2014.
USDA Forest Service [US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service]. 2007. Record of decision for School Fire salvage recovery project. USDA Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest, Pomeroy Ranger District, Pomeroy, Washington, USA.
Wagenbrenner, J.W., L.H. MacDonald, R.N. Coats, P.R. Robichaud, and R.E. Brown. 2015. Effects of post-fire salvage logging and a skid trail treatment on ground cover, soils, and sediment production in the interior western United States. Forest Ecology and Management 335: 176–193. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2014.09.016
Westerling A.L., H.G. Hidalgo, D.R. Cayan, and T.W. Swetnam. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increases western US forest wildfire activity. Science 313: 940–943. doi: 10.1126/science.1128834
Winer, B.J. 1971. Statistical principles in experimental design. Second edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, USA.