Agee, J.K. 1981. Initial effects of prescribed fire in a climax Pinus contorta forest: Crater Lake National Park. National Park Service, Cooperative Park Studies Unit CPSU/UW 81-4. Seattle: University of Washington, College of Forest Resources.
Agee, J.K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Agne, M.C., D.C. Shaw, T.J. Woolley, and M.E. Queijeiro-Bolaños. 2014. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon. PLoS One 9: e107532 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.017532.
Bentz, B., J. Logan, J. MacMahon, C.D. Allen, M. Ayres, E. Berg, A. Carroll, M. Hansen, J. Hicke, L. Joyce, W. Macfarlane, S. Munson, J. Negron, T. Paine, J. Powell, K. Raffa, J. Regniere, M. Reid, B. Romme, S.J. Seybold, D. Six, D. Tomback, J. Vandygriff, T. Veblen, M. White, J. Witcosky, and D. Wood. 2009. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences. Bark beetle symposium; Snowbird, Utah, November 2005. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Bradford, J.B., D.R. Schlaepfer, and W.K. Lauenroth. 2014. Ecohydrology of adjacent sagebrush and lodgepole pine ecosystems: the consequences of climate change and disturbance. Ecosystems 17: 590–605 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9745-1.
Bright, B.C., J.A. Hicke, and A.T. Hudak. 2012. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho. Environmental Research Letters 7: 045702 https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/045702.
Brown, J.K. 1976. Estimating shrub biomass from basal stem diameters. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 6: 153–158 https://doi.org/10.1139/x76-019.
Brown, J.K., R.D. Oberhau, and C.M. Johnson. 1982. Handbook for inventorying surface fuels and biomass in the interior west. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-GTR-129. Ogden: Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Brown, J.K., E.D. Reinhardt, and K.A. Kramer. 2003. Coarse Woody debris: managing benefits and fire hazard in the recovering forest. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-105. Ogden: Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Brown, M., T.A. Black, Z. Nesic, V.N. Foord, D.L. Spittlehouse, A.L. Fredeen, N.J. Grant, P.J. Burton, and J.A. Trofymow. 2010. Impact of mountain pine beetle on the net ecosystem production of lodgepole pine stands in British Columbia. Agric For Meteorol 150: 254–264 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.008.
Busse, M.D. 1994. Downed bole-wood decomposition in lodgepole pine forests of central Oregon. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 221–227 https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800010033x.
Cole, W.E., and G.D. Amman. 1980. Mountain pine beetle dynamics in lodgepole pine forests, part I: course of an infestation. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report GTR-INT-89. Ogden: Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Collins, B.J., C.C. Rhoades, M.A. Battaglia, and R.M. Hubbard. 2012. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior in salvage logged and untreated lodgepole pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 284: 206–268 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.027.
Collins, B.J., C.C. Rhoades, R.M. Hubbard, and M.A. Battaglia. 2011. Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management 261: 2168–2175.
Despain, D.G. 1973. Vegetation of the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming in relation to substrate and climate. Ecol Monographs 43: 329–355 https://doi.org/10.2307/1942345.
Diskin, M., M.E. Rocca, K.N. Nelson, C.F. Aoki, and W.H. Romme. 2011. Forest developmental trajectories in mountain pine beetle disturbed forests of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 782–792 https://doi.org/10.1139/x10-247.
Donato, D.C., B.J. Harvey, W.H. Romme, M. Simard, and M.G. Turner. 2013. Bark beetle effects on fuel profiles across a range of stand structures in Douglas-fir forests of Greater Yellowstone. Ecological Applications 23: 3–20 https://doi.org/10.1890/12-0772.1.
Edburg, S.L., J.A. Hicke, P.D. Brooks, E.G. Pendall, B.E. Ewers, U. Norton, D. Gochis, E.D. Gutmann, and A.J.H. Meddens. 2012. Cascading impacts of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on coupled biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. Front Ecol Environ 10: 416–424.
Franklin, J.F., and C.T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-8. Portland: Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Gara, R.I., W.R. Littke, J.K. Agee, D.R. Geiszler, J.D. Stuart, and C.H. Driver. 1985. Influence of fires, fungi, and mountain pine beetles on development of a lodgepole pine forest in south-central Oregon. In Lodgepole pine: the species and its management symposium proceedings, ed. D.M. Baumgartner, R.G. Krebill, J.T. Arnott, and G.F. Weetman, 153–162. Pullman: Washington State University.
Geiszler, D.R., R.I. Gara, C.H. Driver, V.F. Gallucci, and R.E. Martin. 1980. Fire, fungi, and beetle influences on a lodgepole pine ecosystem of south-central Oregon. Oecologia 46: 239–243 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00540132.
Grice, J.W., and M. Iwasaki. 2007. A truly multivariate approach to MANOVA. Applied Multivariate Research 12: 199–226 https://doi.org/10.22329/amr.v12i3.660.
Hansen, E.M. 2014. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks. Forest Science 60: 476–488.
Harmon, M.E., and J. Sexton. 1996. Guidelines for measurements of woody detritus in forest ecosystems. U.S. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network Publication No. 20. U.S. LTER Network Office. Seattle: University of Washington.
Harmon, M.E., C.W. Woodall, B. Fasth, and J. Sexton. 2008. Woody detritus density and density reduction factors for tree species in the United States: a synthesis. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NRS-GTR-29. Newtown Square: Northern Research Station.
Heyerdahl, E.K., R.A. Loehman, and D.A. Falk. 2014. Mixed-severity fire in lodgepole pine dominated forests: are historical regimes sustainable on Oregon’s Pumice Plateau, USA? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 44: 593–603 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfr-2013-0413.
Hicke, J.A., M.C. Johnson, J.L. Hayes, and H.K. Preisler. 2012. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 271: 81–90.
Hopkins, W. 1979. Plant associations of the Fremont National Forest. USDA Forest Service R6-ECOL-79-004. Portland: Pacific Northwest Region.
Jenkins, M.J., E. Hebertson, W. Page, and C.A. Jorgensen. 2008. Bark beetles, fuels, fires and implications for forest management in the Intermountain West. Forest Ecology and Management 254: 16–34.
Jenkins, M.J., J.B. Runyon, C.J. Fettig, W.G. Page, and B.J. Bentz. 2014. Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels. Forest Science 60: 489–501.
Johnson, E.A., and K. Miyanishi. 2008. Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecology Letters 11 (5): 419–431 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01173.x.
Jolly, W.M., R. Parsons, J.M. Varner, B.W. Butler, K.C. Ryan, and C.L. Gucker. 2012. Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests? Comment. Ecology 93 (4): 941–946.
Kane, J.M., J.M. Varner, M.R. Metz, and J.P. van Mantgem. 2017. Characterizing interactions between fire and other disturbances and their impacts on tree mortality in western US forests. Forest Ecology and Management 405: 188–199.
Kasischke, E.S., B.D. Amiro, N.N. Barger, N.H.F. French, S.J. Goetz, G. Grosse, M.E. Harmon, J.A. Hicke, S. Liu, and J.G. Masek. 2013. Impacts of disturbance on the terrestrial carbon budget of North America. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 118: 303–316 https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrg.20027.
Kautz, M., A.J. Meddens, R.J. Hall, and A. Arneth. 2017. Biotic disturbances in Northern Hemisphere forests-a synthesis of recent data, uncertainties and implications for forest monitoring and modelling. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26: 533–552 https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12558.
Kayes, L.J., and D.B. Tinker. 2012. Forest structure and regeneration following a mountain pine beetle epidemic in southeastern Wyoming. Forest Ecology and Management 263: 57–66.
Klutsch, J.G., M.A. Battaglia, D.R. West, S.L. Costello, and J.F. Negron. 2011. Evaluating potential fire behavior in lodgepole pine-dominated forests after a mountain pine beetle epidemic in north-central Colorado. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 26: 101–109.
Koch, A.J., M.C. Drever, and K. Martin. 2011. The efficacy of common species as indicators: avian responses to disturbance in British Columbia, Canada. Biodiversity Conservation 20: 3555–3575.
Lotan, J.E., and W.B. Critchfield. 1990. Lodgepole pine. In Silvics of North America. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654, ed. R.M. Burns and B.H. Honkala, 604–629. Washington, D.C.
Lutes, D.C. 2014. FuelCalc’s user’s guide v1.2. USDA Forest Service. Missoula: Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Lutes, D.C., R.E. Keane, J.F. Caratti, C.H. Key, N.C. Benson, and S. Sutherland. 2006. FIREMON: fire effects monitoring and inventory system. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-164-CD. Fort Collins: Rocky Mountain Research Station.
McConnell, T.J., E.W. Johnson, and B. Burns. 2000. A guide to conducting aerial sketchmapping surveys. USDA Forest Service FHTET 00–01. Fort Collins: Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team.
Means, J.E., H.A. Hansen, G.J. Koerper, P.B. Alaback, and M.W. Klopsch. 1994. Software for computing plant biomass-BIOPAK user’s guide. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-340. Portland: acific Northwest Research Station.
Mitchell, R.G., and H.K. Preisler. 1998. Fall rate of lodgepole pine killed by the mountain pine beetle in central Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 13: 23–26.
Mowat, E.L. 1960. No serotinous cones on central Oregon lodgepole pine. Journal of Forestry 58: 118–119.
Negron, J.F., B.J. Bentz, C.J. Fettig, N. Gillette, E.M. Hansen, J.L. Hayes, R.G. Kelsey, J.E. Lundquist, A.M. Lynch, R.A. Progar, and S.J. Seybold. 2008. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: looking toward the future. Journal of Forestry 106: 325–331.
Omernik, J.M. 1987. Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77: 118–125 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1987.tb00149.x.
Page, W.G., M.E. Alexander, and M.J. Jenkins. 2013. Wildfire’s resistance to control in mountain pine beetle-attacked lodgepole pine forests. The Forestry Chronicle 89: 783–794.
Page, W.G., and M.J. Jenkins. 2007. Mountain pine beetle-induced changes to selected lodgepole pine fuel complexes within the Intermountain region. Forest Science 53: 507–518.
Page, W.G., M.J. Jenkins, and M.E. Alexander. 2014. Crown fire potential in lodgepole pine forests during the red stage of mountain pine beetle attack. Forestry 87: 347–361 https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpu003.
Pelz, K.A., C.C. Rhoades, R.M. Hubbard, M.A. Battaglia, and F.W. Smith. 2015. Species composition influences management outcomes following mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine-dominated forests. Forest Ecology and Management 336: 11–20.
Pelz, K.A., and F.W. Smith. 2012. Thirty year change in lodgepole and lodgepole/mixed conifer forest structure following 1980s mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Colorado, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 280: 93–102.
Perrakis, D.D.B., R.A. Lanoville, S.W. Taylor, and D. Hicks. 2014. Modeling wildfire spread in mountain pine beetle-affected forest stands, British Columbia, Canada. Fire Ecology 10 (2): 10–35 https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.1002010.
Pfister, R.D., B.L. Kovalchik, S.F. Arno, and R.C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-GTR-34. Ogden: Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
PRISM Climate Group. 2013. Northwest alliance for computational science and Engineering. Oregon State University http://prism.oregonstate.edu. Accessed 4 Feb 2013.
R Development Core Team. 2009. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. version 2.12.0. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Raffa, K.F., B.H. Aukema, B.J. Bentz, A.L. Carroll, J.A. Hicke, M.G. Turner, and W.H. Romme. 2008. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. BioScience 58: 501–517 https://doi.org/10.1641/B580607.
Reed, R.M. 1976. Coniferous forest habitat types of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming. American Midland Naturalist 95: 159–173 https://doi.org/10.2307/2424242.
Rex, J., S. Dubé, and V. Foord. 2013. Mountain pine beetles, salvage logging, and hydrologic change: predicting wet ground areas. Water 5: 443–461 https://doi.org/10.3390/w5020443.
Roe, A.L., and G.D. Amman. 1970. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-71. Ogden: Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Romme, W.H. 1980. Fire frequency in subalpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. In Proceedings of the fire history workshop. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-81, ed. M.A. Stokes and J.H. Dietrich, 27–30. Fort Collins, Colorado: Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Ross, D.W., and J.D. Walstad. 1986. Estimating aboveground biomass of shrubs and young ponderosa and lodgepole pines in southcentral Oregon. Forest Research Laboratory Research Bulletin 57. Corvallis: Oregon State University.
SAS. 2002. SAS user’s guide version 9.1. Cary: SAS Institute.
Schoennagel, T., M.G. Turner, and W.H. Romme. 2003. The influence of fire interval and serotiny on postfire lodgepole pine density in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 84: 2967–2978 https://doi.org/10.1890/02-0277.
Schoennagel, T., T.T. Veblen, J.F. Negron, and J.M. Smith. 2012. Effects of mountain pine beetle on fuels and expected fire behavior in lodgepole pine forests, Colorado, USA. PLoS One 7: e30002 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030002.
Schoennagel, T., T.T. Veblen, and W.H. Romme. 2004. The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests. Bioscience 54 (7): 661–676 https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568%282004%29054%5B0661:TIOFFA%5D2.0.CO;2.
Scott, J.H., and E.D. Reinhardt. 2001. Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior. USDA Forest Service Research Paper RMRS-RP-29. Fort Collins: Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Shaw, D.C., and M.C. Agne. 2017. Fire and dwarf mistletoe (Viscaceae: Arceuthobium species) in western North America: contrasting Arceuthobium tsuense and Arceuthobium americanum. Botany 95: 231–246 https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2016-0245.
Simard, M., W.H. Romme, J.M. Griffin, and M.G. Turner. 2011. Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests? Ecological Monographs 81: 3–24 https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1176.1.
Simpson, M. 2007. Forested plant associations of the Oregon East Cascades. USDA Forest Service R6-NR-ECOL-TP-03–2007. Portland: Pacific Northwest Region.
Sollins, P. 1982. Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 18–28 https://doi.org/10.1139/x82-003.
Stevens, D.L., and A.R. Olsen. 2004. Spatially balanced sampling of natural resources. Journal of the American Statistical Association 99: 262–278 https://doi.org/10.1198/016214504000000250.
Strickler, G.S. 1959. Use of the densiometer to estimate density of forest canopy on permanent sample plots. USDA Forest Service Research Note No. 180. Portland: Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Stuart, J.D. 1983. Stand structure and development of a climax lodgepole pine forest in south-central Oregon. Dissertation. Seattle: University of Washington.
Thomas, J.W. 1979. Wildlife habitats in managed forests of the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. 553. Washington, D.C.
Treu, R., J. Karst, M. Randall, G.J. Pec, P.W. Cigan, S.W. Simard, J.E.K. Cooke, N. Erbilgin, and J.F. Cahill Jr. 2014. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic. Ecology 95: 1096–1103 https://doi.org/10.1890/13-1233.1.
USDA Forest Service. 2010. Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS). Insect and disease survey data for Oregon. USA: http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/r6/forest-grasslandhealth/insects-diseases/?cid=stelprdb5286951. Accessed 1 April 2010.
Volland, L.A. 1985. Plant associations of the central Oregon pumice zone. USDA Forest Service Publication R6-ECOL-104-1985. Portland: Pacific Northwest Region.