Abrams, M.D., and G.J. Nowacki. 2020. Native American imprint in palaeoecology. Nature Sustainability 3 (11): 896–897. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-0578-6.
Anderson, R.C., and J.E. Schwegman. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal 11: 100–107 http://www.naturalareas.org/docs/v11_2_91_pp100_107.pdf.
Arthur, M.A., R.D. Paratley, and B.A. Blankenship. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 125 (3): 225–236. https://doi.org/10.2307/2997220.
Ashton, M.S., and M. Kelty. 2018. The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology. 10th ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd..
Ashton, P.M.S., P.G. Harris, and R. Thadani. 1998. Soil seed bank dynamics in relation to topographic position of a mixed-deciduous forest in southern New England, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 111: 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00305-3.
Baker, J.C., and J.D. Hodges. 1998. Changes in woody stem species diversity over time following clearcutting in the Mississippi river floodplain. In Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference: Clemson, South Carolina, February 25-27, 468–473. Asheville, North Carolina: USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
Boerner, R.E.J., J. Huang, and S.C. Hart. 2009. Impacts of Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach. Ecological Applications 19 (2): 338–358. https://doi.org/10.1890/07-1767.1.
Brose, P., T. Schuler, D. van Lear, and J. Berst. 2001. Bringing fire back: the changing regimes of the appalachian mixed-oak forests. Journal of Forestry 99: 30–35 https://academic.oup.com/jof/article/99/11/30/4614301?login=true.
Brose, P.H., D.C. Dey, and T.A. Waldrop. 2014. The fire-oak literature of eastern North America: synthesis and guidelines. General Technical Report NRS-135. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/NRS-GTR-135.
Brown, J.K., and J.K. Smith. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/RMRS-GTR-42-V2.
Cavender-Bares, J., and P.B. Reich. 2012. Shocks to the system: community assembly of the oak savanna in a 40-year fire frequency experiment. Ecology 93 (sp8): S52–S69. https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0502.1.
Certini, G. 2005. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143 (1): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-004-1788-8.
Chao, A. 1984. Nonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 11: 265–270 https://www.jstor.org/stable/4615964.
Chapin, F.S., P.M. Vitousek, and K. Van Cleve. 1986. The nature of nutrient limitation in plant communities. The American Naturalist 127 (1): 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1086/284466.
Chapman, J.I., and R.W. McEwan. 2016. Thirty years of compositional change in an old-growth temperate forest: the role of topographic gradients in oak-maple dynamics. PLOS ONE 11 (7): e0160238. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160238.
Cogbill, C.V., J. Burk, and G. Motzkin. 2002. The forests of presettlement New England, USA: spatial and compositional patterns based on town proprietor surveys. Journal of Biogeography 29 (10-11): 1279–1304. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00757.x.
Connell, J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199 (4335): 1302–1310. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.199.4335.1302.
Core Team, R. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing https://www.R-project.org/.
Cronon, W. 2011. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Davison, S.E., and R.T.T. Forman. 1982. Herb and shrub dynamics in a mature oak forest: a thirty-year study. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109 (1): 64–73. https://doi.org/10.2307/2484469.
DeSelm, H.R., and E.E.C. Clebsch. 1991. Response types to prescribed fire in oak forest understory. In Fire and the environment: ecological and cultural perspectives. General Technical Report SE-GTR-69, ed. Stephen C. Nodvin and Thomas A. Waldrop, 22–23. Asheville: USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/SE-GTR-69.
Dey, D.C., and Z. Fan. 2009. A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment. In Proceedings of the 3rd fire in eastern oak forests conference; Carbondale, IL, May 20-22, General Technical Report NRS-P-46, ed. Todd F. Hutchinson, 2–20. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/17288.
Ducey, M.J., W.K. Moser, and P.M.S. Ashton. 1996. Effect of fire intensity on understory composition and diversity in a Kalmia-dominated oak forest, New England, USA. Vegetatio 123 (1): 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00044890.
Duguid, M.C., B.R. Frey, D.S. Ellum, M. Kelty, and M.S. Ashton. 2013. The influence of ground disturbance and gap position on understory plant diversity in upland forests of southern New England. Forest Ecology and Management 303: 148–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.04.018.
Elliott, K.J., R.L. Hendrick, A.E. Major, J.M. Vose, and W.T. Swank. 1999. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians. Forest Ecology and Management. 114 (2-3): 199–213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00351-X.
Ellum, D.S. 2009. Floristic diversity in managed forests: demography and physiology of understory plants following disturbance in southern New England forests. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 28 (1-2): 132–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/10549810802626431.
Foster, D.R., S. Clayden, D.A. Orwig, B. Hall, and S. Barry. 2002. Oak, chestnut and fire: climatic and cultural controls of long-term forest dynamics in New England, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29 (10-11): 1359–1379. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00760.x.
Foster, D.R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1 (1): 96–119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s100219900008.
Fralish, J.S. 2003. The Central Hardwood Forest: its boundaries and physiographic provinces. In General Technical Report NC-234. St. Paul: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12317#:~:text=Geographically%2C%20the%20region%20is%20also,Plain%20extend%20into%20the%20region.
Fuller, J.L., D.R. Foster, J.S. McLachlan, and N. Drake. 1998. Impact of human activity on regional forest composition and dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1 (1): 76–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s100219900007.
Ganzlin, P.W., M.J. Gundale, R.E. Becknell, and C.C. Cleveland. 2016. Forest restoration treatments have subtle long-term effects on soil C and N cycling in mixed conifer forests. Ecological Applications 26 (5): 1503–1516. https://doi.org/10.1002/15-1100.
Gundale, M.J., T.H. DeLuca, C.E. Fiedler, P.W. Ramsey, M.G. Harrington, and J.E. Gannon. 2005. Restoration treatments in a Montana ponderosa pine forest: effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Forest Ecology and Management 213 (1-3): 25–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.015.
Guyette, R., M. Stambaugh, D. Dey, and R. Muzika. 2012. Predicting fire frequency with chemistry and climate. Ecosystems 15 (2): 322–335. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-011-9512-0.
Hall, B., G. Motzkin, D.R. Foster, M. Syfert, and J. Burk. 2002. Three hundred years of forest and land-use change in Massachusetts, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29 (10-11): 1319–1335. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00790.x.
Hart, J.L., and M.L. Buchanan. 2012. History of fire in eastern oak forests and implications for restoration. In Proceedings of the 4th fire in eastern oak forests conference, Springfield, MO, May 17-19, General Technical Report NRS-P-102, ed. Daniel C. Dey, Michael C. Stambaugh, Stacy L. Clark, and Callie J. Schweitzer, 34–51. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42130.
Holzmueller, E.J., S. Jose, and M.A. Jenkins. 2009. The response of understory species composition, diversity, and seedling regeneration to repeated burning in southern Appalachian oak-hickory forests. Natural Areas Journal 29 (3): 255–262. https://doi.org/10.3375/043.029.0305.
Howard, L.F., and T.D. Lee. 2003. Temporal patterns of vascular plant diversity in southeastern New Hampshire forests. Forest Ecology and Management 185: 5–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00243-3.
Huston, M. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity. The American Naturalist 113 (1): 81–101. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2459944. https://doi.org/10.1086/283366.
Hutchinson, T., and S. Sutherland. 2000. Fire and understory vegetation: a large-scale study in Ohio and a search for general response patterns in central hardwood forests. In Proceedings: workshop on fire, people, and the central hardwoods landscape, Richmond, KY, March 12-14, General Technical Report NE-274, ed. D.A. Yaussy, 64–74. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/NE-GTR-274.
Hutchinson, T.F., R.E.J. Boerner, S. Sutherland, E.K. Sutherland, and L.R. Iverson. 2005. Prescribed fire effects on the herbaceous layer of mixed-oak forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35 (4): 877–890. https://doi.org/10.1139/x04-189.
Kindt, R., and R. Coe. 2005. Tree diversity analysis. A manual and software for common statistical methods for ecological and biodiversity studies. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) ISBN 92-9059-179-X.
Kinkead, C.O., J.M. Kabrick, M.C. Stambaugh, and K.W. Grabner. 2013. Changes to oak woodland stand structure and ground flora composition caused by thinning and burning. In Proceedings of the 18th Central Hardwood forest conference, Morgantown, WV, March 26-28, General Technical Report NRS-P-117, ed. G.W. Miller, T.M. Schuler, K.W. Gottschalk, J.R. Brooks, S.T. Grushecky, B.D. Spong, and J.S. Rentch, 373–383. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/44102.
Knapp, B.O., K. Stephan, and J.A. Hubbart. 2015. Structure and composition of an oak-hickory forest after over 60 years of repeated prescribed burning in Missouri, U.S.A. Forest Ecology and Management 344: 95–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.02.009.
Kreye, J.K., J.M. Varner, J.K. Hiers, and J. Mola. 2013. Toward a mechanism for eastern North American forest mesophication: differential litter drying across 17 species. Ecological Applications 23 (8): 1976–1986. https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0503.1.
Lefland, A.B., M.C. Duguid, R.S. Morin, and M.S. Ashton. 2018. The demographics and regeneration dynamic of hickory in second-growth temperate forest. Forest Ecology and Management 419: 187–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.03.027.
Lettow, M.C., L.A. Brudvig, C.A. Bahlai, and D.A. Landis. 2014. Oak savanna management strategies and their differential effects on vegetative structure, understory light, and flowering forbs. Forest Ecology and Management 329: 89–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.06.019.
Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-7358-0.
McCord, J.M., C.A. Harper, and C.H. Greenberg. 2014. Brood cover and food resources for wild turkeys following silvicultural treatments in mature upland hardwoods. Wildlife Society Bulletin 38 (2): 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1002/wsb.403.
Native Plant Trust. 2020. Full key for plant identification. Go Botany https://gobotany.nativeplanttrust.org/.
NOAA, National Centers for Environmental Information. 2020. Climate at a glance: statewide time series. August.
Nowacki, G.J., and M.D. Abrams. 2008. The demise of fire and “mesophication” of forests in the eastern United States. BioScience 58 (2): 123–138. https://doi.org/10.1641/B580207.
NRCS. 2008. Soil Survey of the State of Connecticut. In Cooperation with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. The Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, and Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection.
Oakman, E.C., D.L. Hagan, T.A. Waldrop, and K. Barrett. 2019. Understory vegetation responses to 15 years of repeated fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Forests 10 (4): 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040350.
Oksanen, J., F.G. Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P.R. Minchin, et al. 2019. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.5-6. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
Palmer, M.W. 1994. Variation in species richness: towards a unification of hypotheses. Folia Geobotanica et Phytotaxonomica 29 (4): 511–530. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02883148.
Parshall, T., and D.R. Foster. 2002. Fire on the New England landscape: regional and temporal variation, cultural and environmental controls. Journal of Biogeography 29 (10-11): 1305–1317. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00758.x.
Patterson, W.A. 2006. The paleoecology of fire and oaks in eastern forests. In Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers, proceedings of a conference, Columbus, OH, November 15-17, General Technical Report NRS-P-1, ed. Matthew B. Dickinson, 2–19. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/18429.
Patterson, W.A., and K.E. Sassaman. 1988. Indian fires in the prehistory of New England. In Holocene Human Ecology in Northeastern North America, Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology, ed. George P. Nicholas, 107–135. Boston: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2376-9_6.
Peterson, D.W., and P.B. Reich. 2001. Prescribed fire in oak savanna: fire frequency effects on stand structure and dynamics. Ecological Applications 11 (3): 914–927. https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0914:PFIOSF]2.0.CO;2.
Pielou, E.C. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13: 131–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(66)90013-0.
Poulos, H. 2015. Fire in the Northeast: learning from the past, planning for the future. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 34 (1-2): 6–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2014.973608.
Ruben, J.A., D.T. Bolger, D.R. Peart, and M.P. Ayres. 1999. Understory herb assemblages 25 and 60 years after clearcutting of a northern hardwood forest, USA. Biological Conservation 90: 203–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00032-4.
Ruffner, C.M. 2006. Understanding the evidence for historical fire across eastern forests. In Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers; proceedings of a conference, Columbus, OH, November 15-17, General Technical Report NRS-P-1, ed. Matthew B. Dickinson, 40–48. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://books.google.com/books?id=roZLAAAAYAAJ.
Ryan, K.C., E.E. Knapp, and J.M. Varner. 2013. Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11 (s1): e15–e24. https://doi.org/10.1890/120329.
Small, C.J., and B.C. McCarthy. 2002. Spatial and temporal variation in the response of understory vegetation to disturbance in a central Appalachian oak forest. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 129 (2): 136–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/3088727.
Soil Survey Staff 1999. Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook Number 436.
Stambaugh, M.C., J.M. Varner, R.F. Noss, D.C. Dey, N.L. Christensen, R.F. Baldwin, R.P. Guyette, B.B. Hanberry, C.A. Harper, S.G. Lindblom, and T.A. Waldrop. 2015. Clarifying the role of fire in the deciduous forests of eastern North America: reply to Matlack. Conservation Biology 29 (3): 942–946. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12473.
Trabaud, L., and J. Lepart. 1980. Diversity and stability in garrigue ecosystems after fire. Vegetatio 43 (1-2): 49–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00121017.
USDA Forest Service. 2008. Fire effects information system. Forest Service: U.S. Department of Agriculture https://www.feis-crs.org/feis/.
USDA NCRS. 2020. The PLANTS Database. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/java/.
Utah AGRC. 2020. US States. ArcGIS Hub.
Vander Yacht, A.L., S.A. Barrioz, P.D. Keyser, C.A. Harper, D.S. Buckley, D.A. Buehler, and R.D. Applegate. 2017. Vegetation response to canopy disturbance and season of burn during oak woodland and savanna restoration in Tennessee. Forest Ecology and Management 390: 187–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2017.01.029.
Varner, J.M., M.A. Arthur, S.L. Clark, D.C. Dey, J.L. Hart, and C.J. Schweitzer. 2016. Fire in eastern North American oak ecosystems: filling the gaps. Fire Ecology 12 (2): 1–6. https://doi.org/10.4996/fireecology.1202001.
Ward, J.S., and P.H. Brose. 2004. Mortality, survival, and growth of individual stems after prescribed burning in recent hardwood clearcuts. In Proceedings of the 14th central hardwoods forest conference, Wooster, OH, March 16-19, General Technical Report NE-316, ed. D.A. Yaussy, D.M. Hix, R.P. Long, and P.C. Goebel, 193–199. Newtown Square: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/NE-GTR-316.
Ward, J.S., and G.R. Stevens. 1989. Long-term effects of a 1932 surface fire on stand structure in a Connecticut mixed hardwood forest. In Proceedings of the 7th central hardwoods forest conference, Carbondale, IL, March 5-8, General Technical Report NC-132, ed. G. Rink and C.A. Budelsky, 267–273. St Paul: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. https://doi.org/10.2737/NC-GTR-132.
Yale School Forests. 2019. Mapping resources. Yale School Forests https://forests.yale.edu/management/mapping-resources.